Editing and Partial Translation: AbdulHafeth Khrisat; departmet of English.
This paper aims at examining the global physical miraculous aspects included in the Quranic verses dealing with the Ardh (Earth) madd at its time of creation, and at the Day of Judgment. The Arabic word Madd has various meanings. The most relevant are accretion, and (or) inflation. The article gives the physical implications in God’s description for earth’s creation: "And the Ardh (Earth) We have Madd it." (Surah No. 50 verse 7, Surah No. 15 verse 19), and the verse "And it is He (Allâh) who Madd the Ardh (Earth)." (Surah No. 13, verse 3). Also it gives the implications in God’s description for earth’s situation on The Day of Judgment: "And When the Ardh (Earth) is Madd." (Surat AL-Inshiqaq No. 84, verse 3). Earth will be Madd: Inflated; due to accretion, tidal interaction and heating. Its surface area will be increased and smoothly curved; as it gets rid of core and mountains. Eight hundred years ago, al-Razi has explained this verse; where he says: “One has to know that increasing the area of the earth is a must, whether through inflation or accretion” (al-Razi, 1995, XVI: Part 31, p. 105).
I. 1: The Various Meanings of Madd (Ibn al-Manzur, ed. 1993, XIII: 50-52.)
Madd: attraction; as moon-ocean force of attraction increases, Madd (tide) occurs. al-Lahyani said that the verse: "And the Ardh (Earth) We have Madd it." (Surah No. 50 Verse 7, Surah No. 15 Verse 19) means leveled and made it flat. Earth will be Madd on the Day of Judgment: "And When the Ardh (Earth) is Madd." (Surat AL-Inshiqaq No. 84, verse 3).
Also madd of the ardh (field, a piece of land) denotes the increase of its components by addition of fertilizers and soil in order to produce in abundance. In another context, for example, a particular valley madd into another river means that it adds and increases its water current. In the same context, a river madd another river (flows and merges into it). Generally speaking, as al-Lahyani remarked, every thing madd another denotes addition and increase to it. Madd also indicates every thing that supplies others as a source for it. God’s verse says: "Say: 'If the ocean were medad (ink) wherewith to write out the words of my Lord, Sooner would the ocean be exhausted than would the words of my Lord, even if we added another ocean like it, for its medad'." (Al-Kahf No. 18, verse 109). Medad means (aid, ink). Al_Farra, an Islamic scholar, interprets Qur'anic verses: "And if all the trees on Ardh (earth) were pens and the Ocean (were ink), with seven Oceans behind it to Madd (add to its supply), yet would not the Words of Allâh be exhausted (in the writing): for Allâh is exalted in power, full of Wisdom" (Luqman No. 31, verse 27). Al_Farra says: Medad (a derivative from madd): is like ink. Allâh madd Euphrates with water, and Euphrates madd our water currents and rivers. In the lexicon, the group is madd with supporters and others means assisting them in their mission. It is mentioned that a group madd the army (supply them with more food, water, arms and ammunition).
According to Shammur, if something is madd, it implies that it is full to the brim but if a river madd, its water level gets higher; if somebody madd the bottle of ink (adds to its content). According to Abu Zayed: People use to say Allâh madd in your life (hope you live long). Another usage of the word madd is to say that the day madd (the sun rises and the time is almost at noon: it is not early morning). To madd something indicates accretion, i.e. to add to its substance (Ibn al-Manzur, XIII: 50-52). Also other meanings of accretion are: 1- Growing together of separate things. 2- An increase in size by natural growth or gradual external addition. 3- A whole that results from such growths or additions. 4- A thing added; addition. 5- Growth in size. 6- The increase in area of a piece of land, beach, etc., by the washing up of soil (Barnhart, 1977, I: 15). 7- The process by which compact stars capture ambient matter is called accretion (Shapiro, 1983, p. 403).
Madd also means inflation: 1- The act of swelling (as with air, gas, pride, or satisfaction). 2- A swollen state; too great expansion. 3- An increase of the currency of a country by issuing much paper money. 4- A sharp and sudden rise in prices resulting from a too great expansion in paper money or bank credit (Barnhart, I: 1083). Universes with exponential expansion are nowadays called inflationary (Ross, 1994, p. 62).
Thus the Arabic word Madd can mean: Accretion, and (or) Inflation; give rope in: extends (the rope) to; plunge deeper in to; help with, assist with; give, somebody, increase in; bestow freely on; grant resources in abundance; aid; add to (supply): like ink for a pen; stretch out (a rope). God Madd; prolong; the shadow: Make long-extended. God Madd the earth: spread out; inflated; formed from small gravitating objects.
The above meanings for the Arabic word (Madd), are taken from the following Verses: The first verse describes the situation of hypocrites and the nonbelievers: "Allâh will throw back their mockery on them, and Madd them (give them rope) in their trespasses; so they will wander like blind ones (to and fro)." (Surat Al-Baqarah No. 1, verse 15). In a second verse, "But their brethren (the evil ones) Madd them (plunge them deeper) into error, and never relax (their efforts)." (Surat Al-A’raf No. 7, verse 202). In another verse, "Say: "If any men go astray, (Allâh) Most Gracious Madd (extends the rope) to them. Until, when they see the warning of Allâh (being fulfilled) - either in punishment or in (the approach of) the Hour, - they will at length realise who is worst in position, and (who) weaker in forces!" (Maryam No. 19, verse 75). And the verses: "Nay! We shall record what he says, and We shall Madd to his punishment." (Maryam No. 19, verse 79). Allâh will add and add to his punishment at the Day of Judgment; due to his Disbelieve. In another context, "If any think that Allâh will not help him (His Messenger) in this world and the Hereafter, let him Madd (stretch out a rope) to the ceiling and cut (himself) off: then let him see whether his plan will remove that which enrages (him)!." (Al-Hajj No. 22, verse 15) (Ibn Katheer, 1994, part III: 283).
Other verses include the word Madd with various meanings. For example:
1- "Remember thou saidst to the Faithful: "Is it not enough for you that Allâh should Madd (help) you with three thousand angels (specially) sent?" (Al-i-Imran No. 3, verse 124).
The support of Moslems by Angels in the Ghazwah (Battle guided and directed by the Prophet) of Badder: "Remember ye implored the assistance of your Lord, and He answered you: I will Madd (assist) you with a thousand of the angels, ranks on ranks.") (Al-Anfal No. 8, verse 9).
2- "Then did We grant you the Return as against them: We gave you Madd (increase) in resources and sons, and made you the more numerous in man-power." (Al-Israa No. 17, verse 6).
3- "Of the bounties of thy Lord We Madd (bestow freely on) all these as well as those: the bounties of thy Lord are not closed (to anyone)". (Al-Israa No. 17, verse 20).
4- "Yea, fear Him Who has Madd (bestowed on) you freely all that ye know. Freely has He Madd (bestowed on) you cattle and sons" (Ash-shu’araa No. 26, verse 132-133).
5- "And We shall Madd (bestow on) them, of fruit and meat, anything they shall desire." (At-Tur No. 52, verse 22) (Ibn Katheer, Part IV: 310).
6- "To whom I granted resources Mamdoada." (Al-Muddaththir No. 74, verse 12). Mamdoada: In abundance and very wide (Ibn Katheer, Part IV: 569).
7- "And if all the trees on the Ardh (Earth) were pens and the Ocean (were ink), with seven Oceans behind it to Madd (add to its supply), yet would not the Words of Allâh be exhausted (in the writing): for Allâh is exalted in power, full of Wisdom." (Luqman No. 31, verse 27). In this verse, the number seven is mentioned to give the meaning of exaggeration not limitation (Ibn Katheer, Part III: 596). Within this context, "Say: If the ocean were Medad (ink) wherewith to write out the words of my Lord, Sooner would the ocean be exhausted than would the words of my Lord, even if we added another ocean like it, for its Madada (aid)." (Al-Kahf No. 18, verse 109).
8- "Hast thou not turned thy vision to thy Lord? How He doth Madd (prolong) the Shadow! If He willed, He could make it stationary! Then do We make the sun its guide" (Al-Furqan No. 25, verse 45). How He doth Madd the Shadow: That is between dawn and sun rise. Stationary: permanent (Ibn Katheer, Part III: 427). The same meaning is made clear by Prophet Mohammed, May Allâh’s blessings and peace be upon him, who said: "In Paradise, there is a tree where the individual walks under its shade for one century and read if you like 'In shade Mamdoad (long-extended)'." (Al-Waqi’a No. 56, verse 30) (Ibn Katheer, Part IV: 370 - 371).
Madd means: To spread out, to inflate, increase the surface area (Ibn Katheer, Part II: 657). Madd can refer to the process of accretion resulting in formation of the earth. These meanings are clearly indicated in the verses:
1- "And it is He (Allâh) who Madd the Ardh (Earth), and set thereon fixing mountains standing firm, and (flowing) rivers: and fruit of every kind He made in pairs, two and two: He draweth the Night as a veil O'er the Day. Behold, verily in these things there are Signs for those who consider!" (Ar-Ra’d No. 13, verse 3).
2- "And the Ardh (Earth) We have Madd it; set thereon mountains firm and immovable; and produced therein all kinds of things in due balance." (Al-Hijr No. 15, verse 19).
Allâh mentions the creation of Earth, and the mass accretion flow which results in Earth's formation. Also Allâh mentions the inflation and smoothing of Earth's surface (where it’s shape is spherical) (Ibn Katheer, Part II: 723).
3- "And the Ardh (Earth); We have Madd it, and set thereon fixing mountains standing firm, and produced therein every kind of beautiful growth (in pairs)" (Qaf No. 50, verse 7). Allâh has enlarged and spread out the Earth (Ibn Katheer, Part IV: 284).
4- "And When the Ardh (Earth) is Madd * And casts forth what is within it and becomes -clean- empty." (Surat Al-Inshiqaq No. 84 verse 3-4). Madd: Spread out, inflated, have an increased surface area, earth will cast forth its internal metals, and its interior becomes empty (Ibn Katheer, Part IV: 629; al-Tabri, Ibn Jareer, 1995, XV: 142; al-Qurtubi, 1996, Part XIX: 177-178). Eighteen hundred years ago, al-Razi has explained this verse. He says: “One has to know that increasing the area of the earth is a must, whether through inflation or accretion” (al-Razi, 1995, XVI: Part 31: 105).
I. 3: Dah’o in Arabic Language (Ibn al-Manzur: IV: 303-04; XI: 110)
Dah’o: a noun, the verb is daha. Allâh daha al-ardh”: leveled the earth and enlarged it to meet the increasing number of inhabitants, and made it fertile: "And the Ardh (Earth), later on, hath He daha * He draweth out therefrom its water and its pasture." (Surah No. 79 Verses: 30-31).
Ibn Barri says: Daha al-ardh (Allâh pushed and threw the earth; causing it to move). It moves away from the sun as it gains kinetic energy. Allâh Daha the earth until it became leveled and stable; then the mountains were constructed and anchored on it. In a saying by Ali bin abi Taleb, “O God! Dahi al-madh’wat” (leveling and enlarging of Ardhean (plural of ardh) is carried out by God.) Also a derived noun from daha is idheyah (the Ostrich’s nest in the sand where she lays its eggs). The ostrich is known to push and kick the sand by her feet and then she lays eggs in a place where she hatches the eggs and the kittens stay in that idheyah. In ibn Omar’s narrative, “daha al-saiyel in the desert” means (to throw, push and cause the water to run and move.)
Ibn al-Musaiyab was asked about dah’o by stones: He replied, “it’s Ok”. And it means to have a competition to show the winner in throwing of stones. In an earlier context, “The rain daha pebbles from the surface of the earth”: (takes the pebbles away with it). It’s also a characteristic of the rain to push away small stones and pieces of rock. Ibn al-Manzur, pointed that it is said to the player of nuts, who daha nuts (throws them), to move the goal further away from him and make daho of nuts.
Moreover, abi Rafe’ said that he used to entertain al-Hassan and al-Hussain by playing with madahi; stones like circular loaves. The Arabs used to make holes in the ground and dahou these stones; the player throws into the hole the stones, nuts, etc. The derivative noun, medhah means a piece of log used by a boy to push and sweep away everything comes in its way on the ground. Moreover, Mecca residents play medhah (small circular pebbles like loaves to be thrown into holes particularly made for such game).
In another context, the horse daha (hops by raising its front hooves a little bit from the ground). Not only a horse daha but also a camel daha (making like hunters holes while laying on the ground). The word daha also is referred to humans. A man sleeps and daha (lie comfortably). But a man daha a woman (marries her). The noun daho’ is used to refer to someone who has a belly. The word dahyah is also used to mean the leader of a group of soldiers. This leader is qualified and privileged by the boss in front of the commander who has all the privileges.
Thus the Arabic word daho can mean: Pushing, throwing, and causing to move. It means to make levelly; with smooth even surface; like a spherical surface with large radius. It means to enlarge, extend, to inflate. For Earth, it also means to draw out therefrom its water and its pasture; making it fertile and suitable for life.
God created and constructed Sama (firmaments: forming upper part of universe) and Ardh (interior part of universe) in six periods. Later on, stars and galaxies are formed (Omari, 2002; Omari, 2004): "So He completed them seven Samawat (plural of Sama: Firmaments) In two periods, and He assigned to each Sama its duty and command. And We adorned the lower Sama with lights, and (provide it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) The exalted in Might, full of knowledge." (Surat Fussilat No. 41, verse 12).
Meanings of Sama: One of the meanings is absolute highness: "Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the Sama (Allâh), will not cause the earth to sink with you, then behold it shakes (as in an earthquake)?" (Al-Mulk 67:16). Another meaning is just highness: "Verily! We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad's) face towards the Sama. Surely, We shall turn you to a Qiblah (prayer direction) that shall please you." (Al-Baqarah 2:144). In some verses it means a canopy of seven Firmaments: "Who has made the Ardh (earth) a resting place for you, and the Sama as a canopy" (Al-Baqarah 2:22). In another usage, it indicates clouds: "Or like a rainstorm from the Sama (clouds), wherein is darkness, thunder, and lightning" (Al-Baqarah 2:19). More over, meanings include rain from clouds: "And We poured out on them the Sama (rain from the clouds) in abundance, and made the rivers flow under them" (Al-An'am 6:6). In some context, it reveals earths Atmosphere: "Allâh is He Who sends the winds, so they raise clouds, and spread them along the Sama as He wills" (Ar-Rum 30:48). Finally, it means the solar system: "Verily! We have adorned the near Sama with the planets (for beauty)." (As-Saffat 37:6). Also the word Sama as mentioned in some Hadiths can mean: stars; galaxies and clusters.
Meanings of Ardh: One of the meanings is earth: "Who has made the Ardh (Earth) for you like a bed (spread out); and has opened roads (ways and paths etc.) for you therein; and has sent water (rain) from the Sama. And We have brought forth with it various kinds of vegetation" (Ta-Ha 20:53). Another meaning is land: "See you not that Allâh sends down water (rain) from the Sama (clouds), and then the Ardh (Land) becomes green? Verily, Allâh is the Most Kind and Courteous, Well-Acquainted with all things" (Al-Hajj 22:63). One of the most indications of Ardh is seven Ardhean (plural of Ardh: The interior and lower part of the Universe) (Omari, 2004; Omari, 2004): "He it is Who created for you all that is in coupled Seven Ardhean. Then He Istawâ towards the Sama (highness) and give order and perfection to the seven Samawat (plural of Sama: canopy) and He is the All-Knower of everything" (Al-Baqarah 2:29). Also the verse: "They made not a just estimate of Allâh such as is due to Him. And on the Day of Resurrection the whole of the Ardh (Seven Ardhean) will be grasped by His Hand. And the Samawat (plural of Sama: canopy) will be rolled up in His Right Hand. Glorified is He, and High is He above all that they associate as partners with Him!" (Az-Zumar 39:67). One of the meanings is Paradise: "And they will say: All the praises and thanks be to Allâh Who has fulfilled His Promise to us and has made us inherit the Ardh (Paradise). We can dwell in Paradise where we will; how excellent a reward for the (pious good) workers!" (Az-Zumar 39:74). Also the word Ardh can mean a field, and a part of the land. In Arabic, the lower part of anything is called ardh. For example, the ardh of a vehicle, room and so on is its floor.
ALLAH says: "When, behold, they find themselves over Al-Sahirah alive after their death" (An-Nazi'at 79:14). Al-Sahirah is the “white” earth; it is a specific area in Sham (Qurtubi, 1996, Part XIX: 130). In Lissan al-Arab, (The Rhetoric of the Arabs), sahur means tiredness and insomnia. “A night saher” denotes being unable to sleep and feeling very tired. In another context, the night is described of being saher shows that it is very long and expanding. The derivative sahruh reveals the land which no one walks through; the land that is renewed by Allâh on the Day of Judgment. In another derivative, sahiruh means the surface of the earth. In the adjective of sahiruh for water, it denotes its flowing day and night (Ibn al-Manzur, VI: 409). The above explained Arabic words will be used to replace their inaccurate and insufficient translations.
Scientific evidence indicates that the universe began around (8 billion-16 billion years ago) from a giant explosion called the big bang (http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/html/age.html ). Allâh says: "Moreover, He comprehended in His design the Sama (upper part of universe), and it had been smoke: He said to it and to Ardh (the lower; interior; part of the Universe): 'Come ye, willingly or unwillingly.' They said: 'We do come, in willing obedience'." (Surah 41, Verse 11). At early stages, the Universe was hot and opaque as indicated by the verse: "and it had been smoke".
The consequence of creation events is given by the Verse: "What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Sama? (Allâh) hath constructed it * On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection. * Its night doth He endow with darkness, and its splendour doth He bring out." (Surah No. 79 Verses: 27-29). Right after the Big bang, Allâh has created Sama (Canopy, Firmaments) and Ardhean (lower part of universe) in six periods. Ardhean's creation is completed in two periods. By the end of the fourth period, God created plenty of matter on the top most part of Ardhean. By the end of the sixth period, the seven distinct and thermally decoupled Samawat (Firmaments) are given order and perfection. Later on, galaxies, stars, Sun, and Earth are created (Figure): Its splendour doth He bring out (with sun light) (). And the Earth, after that, Hath He extended. He draweth out therefrom its water And its pasture. This creation order is consistent with Ages predicted for Universe, sun, and Earth: The universe is about 15 billion years old (Zeilik, 1994, 140; 443), while the sun is 5 billions (Zeilik, 289). The earths crust has formed about 4.5-4.6 billion years ago (Zeilik, 156; http://www. cas.muohio.edu/~mbiws/changethrutime/earthformationpage.htm).
Out of this big bang explosion was born mostly hydrogen and helium atoms with a scant amount of lithium: "Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama) and the Ardh were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30).
The Arabic word (Ratq), implies that at early stages of Universe, matter used to have smeared and continuous mass distribution, and both matter and radiation were coupled together. Later on, God clove them asunder (Fatq): Implying that matter had started clumping and holding together to help forming galaxies. The universe became transparent, and matter is no more coupled to radiation. Consequently Sama (Upper part of Universe) and Ardh (Interior part of Universe) are decoupled; each into seven distinct and probably concentric spherical shells. The seven Ardhean (plural of Ardh) mentioned by authentic hadiths (Prophet's sayings) are more likely seven distinct concentric spherical levels. It is possible that galaxies and clusters of galaxies are distributed over Ardhean. As such, Ardhean contain a major part of the cosmic dark matter that supports forming gravitationally bounded galaxies and clusters ().
The radius of the Universe is large even at early times after the Big Bang explosion occurred in the core of a tremendously large amount of material (Zeilik, 1994, 496). Consistent with Qur’an, theoreticians believe that inflation is a good model. Qur’an indicates that the universe starts vast and will remain expanding until the Day of Judgment (Omari, 2002): "We have built The Sama - Firmament - with might. And We indeed Have vast power; to expand it * And We have spread out Ardh - interior part of the Universe, or Earth - : How excellently We do spread out!" (Surah No. 51, verse 47- 48).
"And We indeed Have vast power; to expand it". This interprets as: ALLAH constructs Sama via expansion (). ALLAH create and elevate Sama with vast force and power, and We (ALLAH) are able to expand it as We desire (). We are able to expand, as We expand its construction ().
After the creation of the seven Samawat (firmaments) and seven Ardhean, God created stars and galaxies (Omari, 2004). Some of the matter of the expanding universe clumped together to form stars (there are billions in the Milky Way galaxy): "So He completed them as seven Samawat (firmaments) in two Days and He assigned to each Sama its duty and command. And We adorned the lower Sama with lights (stars and galaxies), and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge." (Surah 41, verse 12).
Nuclear fusion reactions occur in the stars, where heavy elements were born in a process called nucleosynthesis. The nuclear fusion reactions in these stars gave rise to heavy elements (Figure; Figure). In the process of a supernova, chemical elements up to and surpassing iron are synthesized (Clark, 1998, pp. 158- 159; Phillips, 1994, pp. 25-28). Approximately 5 billion years ago, one of the aging stars in the Milky Way galaxy "exploded", sending a cloud of matter into the galaxy (Figure). Most of the lighter elements (hydrogen and helium) rejoined to form our sun, while the heavier elements formed a flattened disk of matter that orbited the newly born star (Swihart, 1992, page 119; Dormand, 1989 p. 36; http://www.cas.muohio.edu/~mbiws/ changethrutime/earthformationpage.htm).
Atomic and subatomic particles are referred to by God’s saying: "Nor is hidden from the Lord so much as the weight of an atom on the Ardh or in Sama, And not the subatomic nor the greater." (Surat Yunus No. 10, verse 61). "From whom (the Lord) is not hidden the least little atom in the Samawat or on the Ardh: Nor is there anything less than that (subatomic), or greater." (Surat Saba No. 34, verse 3).
Over time (more than 100 million years) this disk of matter began clumping together in a process called collisional accumulation to form larger aggregates of matter (Figure). As the size and gravitational pull increased, the stellar debris clumped into millions of planetesimals, which grew into a much smaller number of planetoids, which eventually grew into the nine planets of the solar system, their moons, and a host of other solar system materials (Swihart, 1992, p. 119): "We have indeed decked the lower Sama (Solar system) with beauty (in) the planets." (Surah No. 37, verse 6). Among other things, the growth into a much smaller number of planetoids is indicated by the verse: "Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama) and the Ardh were Ratq (joined, coupled: Figure), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30). However, it is more obvious that the meaning here of Ardh is seven Ardhean; the interior part of the universe, rather than Earth (Omari, 2004; Omari, 2004).
III. Earth’s Madd
The primordial planet Earth grew out of bits of gas and dust, aggregating over time into a larger, more solid body (http://www.cas.muohio.edu/~mbiws/ changethrutime/earthformationpage.htm.). Qur’an says: "And the Ardh (Earth) We have Madd it." (Surah No. 50, verse 7; Surah No. 15, verse 19). "And it is He (Allâh) who Madd the Ardh (Earth)." (Surah No. 13, verse 3). Earth is formed via acretion of grains in a 4-step process (http://zebu.uoregon.edu/internet/l2.html):
Where “Ardh (Earth) We have Madd it” can mean the primordial planet Earth grew out of bits of gas and dust, aggregating over time into Earth. The young Earth formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago. The age of the Earth has been determined by radioactive dating techniques.
"What! Are ye the more difficult to create or the Sama (Firmaments)? (Allâh) hath constructed it * On high hath He raised its canopy, and He hath given it order and perfection. * Its night doth He endow with darkness, and its splendour doth He bring out (with sun light). And the Ardh (Earth), later on, Hath He daha * He draweth out Therefrom its water and its pasture * And the mountains Hath He firmly fixed." (Surah No. 79, verses: 27-32).
God created and constructed Sama and Ardh (interior part on universe) in six periods. Later on, galaxies and stars are created (Omari, 2004; Omari, 2004). A supernova explosion causes Iron to be ejected and carried out of the star, and higher mass elements to be produced. This is necessary to start a new solar system having life, as our solar system (Iron Inzal).
After the creation of the sun, Allâh made Daho for earth. The Arabic word daha (v.), daho (n.) can mean: Pushing, throwing, and causing to move. It means to make levelly; with smooth even surface; like a spherical surface with large radius. It means to enlarge, extend, to inflate. For Earth, it also means to draw out therefrom its water and its pasture; i.e. make fertile and suitable for life. This meaning is obvious in the following verse:
"And the Ardh (Earth), later on, Hath He daha * He draweth out Therefrom its water and its pasture * And the mountains Hath He firmly fixed". Finally, earth cools with the extraction of it’s water, and mountais are formed: "And the mountains Hath He firmly fixed." (Sura No. 27, verses 53-56).
Liquid water appeared on the Earth's surface starting around 4 billion years ago. We know this from the evidence of sedimentary rocks (which require water to form) that have been found in the Isukasia Region of Greenland that date to over 3.8 billion years old, and gneiss from the Canadian Shield of the Northwest Territories near Great Slave Lake that date to 3.96 billion years old. This is consistent with the following verse:
"And the Ardh (Earth), later on, Hath He Daha * He draweth out Therefrom its water and its pasture * And the mountains Hath He firmly fixed." (Surah No. 79, verses: 30-32).
For the first 600 million years, the Earth's surface was too hot for liquid water to have existed on the surface. Water vapor was released from the abundance of volcanoes, from comets (composed largely of ice and organic compounds), and meteors (also possessing organic compounds). As the water vapor condensed, fell to the Earth's surface, and was vaporized by the hot surface temperatures, the water was cycled back into the atmosphere. This water cycle lasted for over 600 million years. From the constant cycling of this slightly acidic water, small pools and ponds began forming on the continental crust. As the runoff from the granitic continental crust eroded away minerals and salts, they were carried into the oceans and seas, where we now have a 3% salt solution in our oceans. Allâh says: "For that We (again and again) pour forth Water in abundance." (Surah No. 80, verse 25): Water was recycled into the atmosphere, and repeatedly sent back to earth.
III. 1: Bombardment of Earth by Planetoids
Earth was repeatedly bombarded by large planetoids (Figure), which supplies the earth and adds to its constituents, as Qur’an indicates: "And the Ardh (Earth) We have Madd it." (Surah No. 50 verse 7; Surah No. 15 verse 19). In another verse, "And it is He (Allâh) who Madd the Ardh (Earth)" (Surah No. 13 verse 3).
Livermore's findings agree with similar, lower-pressure studies that have melted meteorites and iron -nickel-sulfur- oxygen mixtures and failed to wet the silicate minerals. Together, these experiments indicate that much higher temperatures were required to separate the Earth's core and mantle--temperatures high enough to melt most of the Earth (http://www.llnl.gov/str/Minarik.html ). All of these data lend credence to the theory that the young, growing Earth was repeatedly bombarded by large planetoids, with some of these collisions generating temperatures high enough to form a magma ocean from which drops of dense molten metal separated (Figure). The largest collision may have been when a large celestial body, about the size of Mars, collided with Earth nearly 4.5 billion years ago, melting most of it and causing the core and mantle to separate: "Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama) and the Ardh were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30).
Obviously, here the meaning of Ardh is more likely seven Ardhean; the interior part of the universe. However, it is possible that Ardh means Earth (Omari, 2004; Omari, 2004). Consistent with this verse, now the Earth has four distinct layers plus the atmosphere, one on top of the other (Fig.: Earth's layers). From inside out we have: 1- The inner core composed of solid, crystalline iron and nickel; as Qur'an indicates (Omari: Arabic; English): "And Anzalna Al-Hadid (Iron), in which is Great might, as well as many benefits for mankind." (Surat Al-Hadid (Iron) No. 57, verse 25). 2- The outer core, which is a liquid layer made of molten iron, oxygen, and sulfur compounds. 3- The mantle, which is a molten, quasi-liquid
layer made up of silicon, aluminum, and magnesium oxides. 4- The crust, composed of lighter elements; mostly silicon and lighter mantle compounds; above the mantle. The crust is composed of two distinct parts - the continental crust, which is made up of low-density granitic rocks such as quartz and feldspar that "float" on top of the mantle, and the oceanic crust, which is the earth below the oceans; composed of basaltic rocks rich in elements from the mantle. 5- And the atmosphere, that is composed of variety of gases (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon, etc.), which have changed throughout Earth's history.
Heat in the Earth's Core
The changing thickness of the earth's crust indicates a constant cooling, showing that the heat was created at the beginning of the earth's formation. About a billion years ago, all of the continents had come together forming a large super continent called Pangaea (Pangaea). Now, the Earth is composed of distinct continents. This is indicated by the Qur’anic verse: "Do not the Unbelievers see that the Samawat (plural of Sama) and the Ardh were Ratq (joined, coupled), before We Fatq (clove asunder, decoupled) them?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 30). Here Ardh is more likely to mean seven Ardhean; the interior part of the universe (Omari, 2004). However, it could mean Earth as well. There were no mountains at that time. An "ice age" caused the whole land mass to be covered with ice destroying all terrestrial life. The absence of mountains means the tectonic plates were very thin and light. If they were as thick and heavy as modern plates, they would have buckled and slid over and under each other as they collided to form Pangaea, and mountains would have been the result. Since the plates were thin and light, they just welded together as they collided: "And the Ardh (Earth), later on, Hath He Daha * He draweth out Therefrom its water and its pasture * And the mountains Hath He firmly fixed." (Surah No. 79 Verses: 30-32). The extraction of water from the interior part of earth has contributes to cooling, which in turn speeds mountains formation. For example, a significant earthquake occurred in central South Dakota in 1983. Earthquakes were supposed to be impossible in the area, because there is supposedly one continuous sheet of granite under the entire state. Earth quakes are caused by two plates sliding past each other. It means there are two plates which fit together so precisely that they look like one. This conclusion is reinforced by the fact that there are two very distinct soil types above each plate. Loam sits over the east river plate, and a heavy gumbo sits over the west river plate. So the tectonic plates were thin and light in earlier times, and now they are getting thick and heavy. This means the earth is losing heat, and the heat in the earth's core must have been there at the beginning of the earth's creation. The heat apparently resulted from small particles gravitating toward a center, and the process of colliding and compressing created heat. This is indicated by the Verses: "And the Ardh (Earth) We have Madd it; set thereon fixing firm Mountains." (Surah No. 50 verse 7; Surah No. 15 verse 19); and the verse "and it is He (Allâh) who Madd the Ardh (Earth); set thereon fixing firm Mountains." (Surah No. 13, verse 3).
It is mentioned that primordial planet Earth grew out of bits of gas and dust, aggregating and accreting over time. Also the verse can be referring to earth’s spherical shape; which makes human life easy. Also the word Madd can indicate inflation and increased earth’s surface area; which increase the cooling rate and consequently speeds mountains formation: "See they not that We gradually reduce Ardh (the land) from its outlying border? (Where) Allâh commands, there is none to put back His command: and He is Swift in calling to account." (Surat Ar-Ra’d no.13, verse 41). In another verse, "Nay, We gave the good things of this life to these men and their fathers until the period grew long for them; see they not that We gradually reduce the Ardh (Earth, land) from its outlying borders? Is it then they who will win?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 44). Among various meanings, the preceding two verses are likely referring to the process of internal compression that accompanies Earths cooling.
Additional evidence is in the observation that planets which are farther away from the sun are losing heat faster than they are acquiring it from the sun. They apparently acquired their heat during their creation. Heat in the core of planets cannot be entirely due to nuclear reactions, because that source would require a gradual build-up rather than a gradual loss of heat.
IV. Day of Judgment
IV. 1: Time Contraction Just Before the Day of Judgment
As earth gets close to sun, the length of the year will be reduced; as Kepler’s third law indicates (Figure): The path of a planet around the sun is an ellipse, with the square of its sidereal period being proportional to the cube of the semi major axis. The contraction of the year is indicated by the Prophet Mohammed Hadith, may the blessing of Allâh and peace be upon him. He has made it clear that the Day of Judgment will follow a universal and solar system changes: "The Day of Judgment will not be until time becomes lesser and lesser; when the year becomes as a month; the month becomes as a week; the week becomes as a day; and a day becomes as an hour, and the hour becomes like the striking of a match" (al-Albani, Saheeh al-Jama’, 7; Mishkat al-Masabeeh: 5376).
Kepler’s third rule states, , where is the semi-major axis, and is Earth’s sidereal period (Figure). According to Kepler’s Law, the statement "The year becomes as a month" indicates that the sidereal period of earth (the time it takes to complete one revolution around the sun relative to the stars) decreases to 0.083 of its present value; 365.26 days. The semi-major axis will be reduced by the factor . With furthermore reduction in earth-sun separation, the day will become very long; synchronous rotation: synchronous rotation is a planetological term describing a body orbiting another (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbit), where the orbiting body takes as long to rotate on its axis as it does to make one orbit; and therefore always keeps the same hemisphere pointed at the body it is orbiting. Another way of describing it is that from the surface of the satellite, the main planet appears to be locked in place in the sky as it slowly rotates.
The Moon is in synchronous rotation about the Earth. In fact, most major moons in the solar system have synchronous rotation due to Tidal locking. Tidal locking occurs when the gravitational gradient makes one side of an astronomical body always face another; for example, one side of the Earth's Moon always faces the Earth. A tidally locked body takes just as long to rotate around its own axis as it does to revolve around its partner. This synchronous rotation causes one hemisphere constantly to face the partner body.
Also, the statement "The month becomes as a week", implies that the time moon takes to complete one revolution around the earth is reduced by a factor 0.237. According to Kepler’s third rule, the distance between the moon and Earth is reduced by the factor . According to Qur'an, both sun and moon will be joined: "And the sun and moon Are joined together." (Al-Qiyamat No. 75, verse 9).
In Prophet's previous hadith, the statements: "The Day of Judgment won’t be seen until the earth becomes very close to the sun" and "a week becomes like a day" indicates an increase in the earth’s rotational velocity, as the sun and the moon get close to earth. This can happen, where part of the gravitational potential energy will be converted into rotational kinetic energy.
IV. 2: Grouping and Joining and the Search for Forgiveness
On the Day of Judgment, the sun will become extremely close to earth. There are a number of the Prophet’s hadith (sayings) that confirm this matter. Here is one just as evidence: Prophet Mohammed, may the blessings of Allâh and peace be upon him, said: (The sun comes closer until the sweat covers half of the individual’s ear. On the Day of Judgment, people call Adam for intercession and Adam answers them saying that "I’m not the qualified for this matter". Then they call Mosses who answers them the same as Adam does… And they finally call Mohammed, may the blessings of Allâh and peace be upon him). Abdullah, one of the Prophet's companions, added: "Mohammed intercedes for the people and walks until he opens the door of Paradise (Eden), where he will be honored and granted the most praised locus when all people praise him" (Saheeh al-Bukhari; Al-Jama’ as-Saheeh 1474). There are many Hadiths that confirm: Crowdedness, closeness of the sun at the Day of Judgment, and emphasize that Mohammed is the only one eligible to intercede for the people and seek Allâh's Forgiveness ().
(Narrated Abu Huraira: Some (cooked) meat was brought to Allah Apostle and the meat of a forearm was presented to him as he used to like it. He ate a morsel of it and said, "I will be the chief of all the people on the Day of Resurrection. Do you know the reason for it? Allah will gather all the human being of early generations as well as late generation on one place so that the announcer will be able to make them all-hear his voice and the watcher will be able to see all of them. The sun will come so close to the people that they will suffer such distress and trouble as they will not be able to bear or stand. Then the people will say, 'Don't you see to what state you have reached? Won't you look for someone who can intercede for you with your Lord' Some people will say to some others, 'Go to Adam.' So they will go to Adam and say to him. 'You are the father of mankind; Allah created you with His Own Hand, and breathed into you of His Spirit (meaning the spirit which he created for you); and ordered the angels to prostrate before you; so (please) intercede for us with your Lord. Don't you see in what state we are? Don't you see what condition we have reached?' Adam will say, 'Today my Lord has become angry as He has never become before, nor will ever become thereafter. He forbade me (to eat of the fruit of) the tree, but I disobeyed Him . Myself! Myself! Myself! (has more need for intercession). Go to someone else; go to Noah.' So they will go to Noah and say (to him), 'O Noah! You are the first (of Allah's Messengers) to the people of the earth, and Allah has named you a thankful slave; please intercede for us with your Lord. Don't you see in what state we are?' He will say.' Today my Lord has become angry as He has never become nor will ever become thereafter. I had (in the world) the right to make one definitely accepted invocation, and I made it against my nation. Myself! Myself! Myself! Go to someone else; go to Abraham.' They will go to Abraham and say, 'O Abraham! You are Allah's Apostle and His Khalil from among the people of the earth; so please intercede for us with your Lord. Don't you see in what state we are?' He will say to them, 'My Lord has today become angry as He has never become before, nor will ever become thereafter. I had told three lies (Abu Haiyan (the sub-narrator) mentioned them in the Hadith) Myself! Myself! Myself! Go to someone else; go to Moses.' The people will then go to Moses and say, 'O Moses! You art Allah's Apostle and Allah gave you superiority above the others with this message and with His direct Talk to you; (please) intercede for us with your Lord Don't you see in what state we are?' Moses will say, 'My Lord has today become angry as He has never become before, nor will become thereafter, I killed a person whom I had not been ordered to kill. Myself! Myself! Myself! Go to someone else; go to Jesus.' So they will go to Jesus and say, 'O Jesus! You are Allah's Apostle and His Word which He sent to Mary, and a superior soul created by Him, and you talked to the people while still young in the cradle. Please intercede for us with your Lord. Don't you see in what state we are?' Jesus will say. 'My Lord has today become angry as He has never become before nor will ever become thereafter. Jesus will not mention any sin, but will say, 'Myself! Myself! Myself! Go to someone else; go to Muhammad.' So they will come to me and say, 'O Muhammad ! You are Allah's Apostle and the last of the prophets, and Allah forgave your early and late sins. (Please) intercede for us with your Lord. Don't you see in what state we are?" The Prophet added, "Then I will go beneath Allah's Throne and fall in prostration before my Lord. And then Allah will guide me to such praises and glorification to Him as He has never guided anybody else before me. Then it will be said, 'O Muhammad Raise your head. Ask, and it will be granted. Intercede It (your intercession) will be accepted.' So I will raise my head and Say, 'My followers, O my Lord! My followers, O my Lord'. It will be said, 'O Muhammad! Let those of your followers who have no accounts, enter through such a gate of the gates of Paradise as lies on the right; and they will share the other gates with the people." The Prophet further said, "By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, the distance between every two gate-posts of Paradise is like the distance between Mecca and Busra (in Sham)." ) ('Prophetic Commentary on the Quran (Tafseer of the Prophet (pbuh))' of Sahih Bukhari.).
)الراوي: أبو هريرة المحدث: البخاري - المصدر: صحيح البخاري - الصفحة أو الرقم: 4712، ، [صحيح] )
IV. 3: The Length of the Day of Judgment
The Glorious Qur'an confirmed that the length of the Day of Judgment is 50,000 years: "The angels and the Spirit ascend Unto Him in a Day The measure whereof Is fifty thousand years." (Surah No. 70, verse 4). For the nonbelievers, The Day of Judgment is fifty thousand years long () (fifty thousand years): "The angels and the Spirit ascend Unto Him in a Day The measure whereof Is fifty thousand years." (Surah No. 70, verse 4). Surah No. 70; Verses 1-15; clearly address and concentrate on the Day of Judgment (Ibn Katheer, IV: 538-41; Qurtubi, 1996, IX: Part 18: 185-86). The length of the Day of Judgment has also been confirmed by many of the Prophet’s hadith (sayings) (). Citing one of these hadiths is an appropriate evidence: Abu Hurairuh (a close companion to the Prophet) narrated that the Prophet Mohammed, may the blessings of Allâh and peace be upon him, had said that: (anyone having an amount of gold or silver but never did pay the zakah (alms), will be tortured on the Day of Judgment by these gold or silver, so that they’ll be heated in Hell and used to iron his forehead, back and sides. Moreover, when the gold or silver become colder, they’ll be heated again; "In a Day The measure whereof Is fifty thousand years") (Surah No. 70, verse 4). For more Hadiths, see (fifty thousand years).
Abu Sa’ed al-Khoudari (a close companion to the Prophet) narrated that the Prophet Mohammed, may the blessings of Allâh and peace be upon him, had been asked about the length of this day. The Prophet answered: "It will be very short for the believer so that it won’t match the duration which he had spent in performing a prayer during his life". Abu Sa’ed al-Khoudari also narrated that the Prophet had said: “The unbeliever will see the Day of Judgment 50,000 years...”.
Indeed, most planets around solar-type stars with separations of less than 0.15 AU have eccentricities less than 0.05. Presumably, these planets rotate synchronously with their orbital period (Bodenheimer et al., 2001). QUR’AN and SUNNAH declare that the Day of Judgment has a length of 50,000 years. This implies that the earth, at Day of Judgment, rotate synchronously with its orbital period around the sun. This is due to the much reduced separation between sun and earth. Therefore, the same surface of the earth is always the one that stays in opposition to the sun, as it is the case of the moon and the earth: From earth, the same side of the moon is always observed, whereas the other is invisible (Parker, 1984, p. 157).
V: EXPANSION AND TIDAL INFLATION OF EARTH
The introduction has shown the lexical meanings to the word madd. In brief, madd means: Accretion and inflation, expansion, enlargement, increase. According to Shammur (Ibn al-Manzur, XIII: 50-52), everything is filled and increased its height denotes madd. Also, QUR’AN and SUNNAH declare that the Day of Judgment has a length of 50,000 years, as in the above cited and documented hadiths. In the Qur'an also: "The angels and the Spirit ascend Unto Him in a Day The measure whereof is fifty thousand years." (Surah No. 70, verse 4).
V.1 TIDAL INFLATION
The observational determination of the orbital properties of extra solar planets (Marcy, et al., 2000) provides a golden opportunity to understand the origin and evolution of planetary systems. Perhaps the most surprising finding is the discovery of several short-period planets, starting with the companion to 51 Peg (Mayor and Queloz, 1995). At its orbital separation (0.05 AU), star planet tidal interaction is expected to be intense. Indeed, most planets around solar-type stars with separations of less than 0.15 AU have eccentricities less than 0.05. Presumably, these planets rotate synchronously with their orbital period.
Tidal inflation studies of short-period extra solar planets (Bodenheimer et al., 2001) is consistent with the description Qur’an gives for the early stages of Earth, and is also similar to Earth’s situation at the Day of Judgment. We are going to show that the basic physical principles are precisely described by Qur’an. Bodenheimer et al. (2001) have examined the consequences of tidal interaction between eccentric short- period extra solar planets and their host stars and of secular perturbations between planets in a given system. They have applied their results to three systems with short-period planets: HD 209458, Ups And, and Tau Boo.
If the planet is within 0.05 AU of the star, the dissipation of the stellar tidal disturbance within the planet provides a significant energy source, which causes the planet to inflate as it adjusts to a thermal equilibrium. Bodenheimer et al. (2001) have determined the planetary size as a function of the tidal dissipation rate with or without the presence of a core. Inflation intensifies the star-planet tidal interaction and accelerates the pace (progress) of the planet’s spin synchronization and orbital circularization.
It has been mentioned by Qur’an and Hadiths that the measure of the Day of Judgment is fifty thousand years (fifty thousand years). Also Hadiths emphasize the reduction in earth-sun separation, where Sun is going to be very close to Earth. Earth will be Madd: "And When the Ardh (Earth) is Madd." (Surat AL-Inshiqaq No. 84, verse 3). The physics being addressed by the verse has been clarified explicitly by al-Razi; who sayas: “One has to know that increasing the area of the earth is a must, whether through inflation or accretion” (al-Razi, 1995, XVI: Part 31: 105).
On the Day of Judgment, Earth will encounter cores ejection: "And casts forth what is within it and becomes -clean- empty." (Surah 84, verse 4). Also Mountains will be destructed: "And the mountains will move away with a (horrible) movement" (At-Tur 52:10). In another verse, "And the mountains will be powdered to dust" (Al-Waqi'ah 56:5). Other happenings are: "And the Ardh (Earth) and the mountains shall be removed from their places, and crushed with a single crushing" (Al-Haqqah 69:14) and "And the mountains will be like flakes of wool" (Al-Ma'arij 70:9). Moreover events are: "On the Day when the Ardh (Earth) and the mountains will be in violent shake, and the mountains will be a heap of sand poured out and flowing down" (Al-Muzzammil 73:14).
Associated with orbital evolution, the dissipation of the tidal disturbance within the short-period planets leads to an energy source (Goldreich and Soter, 1966) in addition to those arising from gravitational contraction and stellar irradiation. Bodenheimer et al. (2001) examine the modification of the Planet’s internal structure and size as a consequence of the tidal dissipation and discusses the observational implications: "And when Ardh (the Earth) is Madd" (Surah 84, verse 3).
V.2. THE PLANET’S STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT OWING TO INDUCED HEATING (Bodenheimer et al., 2001)
There are two conventional theories of the formation of Jovian-mass planets. The first involves coagulation and accretion of small particles of ice and rock to form a solid core (Safronov, 1969; Wetherill, 1980) followed by rapid accretion of gas from the protoplanetary disk (Bodenheimer, 1986). The second relies on gravitational instability in a gaseous protostellar disk (Kuiper, 1951; Cameron, 1978; Boss, 1997), which produces a subcondensation with composition close to that of the central star with little, if any, solid core (Stevenson, 1982; Boss, 1998). Although the inferred presence of solid cores in Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune (Hubbard, 1980; Wuchterl et al., 2000) favors the first scenario in our solar system, there is as yet no evidence for or against cores in extrasolar planetary systems. The theory applicable to our solar system is consistent with the verses: "And the Ardh (Earth) We have Madd it." (Surah No. 50 Verse 7, Surah No. 15 Verse 19); "And it is He (Allâh) who Madd the Ardh (Earth)." (Surah No. 13, verse 3); and "So verily I call to witness the planets that recede * The runaway (planets) Konnas (sweepers)." (Surah No. 81, verses 15-16).
Among various implications, the word Madd in the first two verses refers to coagulation and accretion of small particles and gas. Also, the previous verse is most likely referring to runaway planetisimals that orbits the protosun (Figure; Figure), and sweeps material within a certain radius from the planetisimal (Clark, 1998, p. 89). The verse uses the Arabic statement whose exact translation is "So verily, I swear by the planets that recede * The runaway Konnas (sweepers)" (Surat At-Takwir verse 15-16). In both scenarios, protogiant planets, after an initial hydrodynamic accretion phase, go through an extended phase of quasi-hydrostatic contraction. The rate of contraction slows down as the planet approaches an asymptotic final radius; at this point, most of the energy liberated is the result of cooling of the interior. The quasi-hydrostatic contraction that accompanies Earth's cooling is expressed by the two verses: "See they not that We gradually reduce the Ardh (Earth, land) from its outlying border? (Where) Allâh commands, there is none to put back His command: and He is Swift in calling to account." (Surat Ar-Ra’d no.13, verse 41); and the verse "Nay, We gave the good things of this life to these men and their fathers until the period grew long for them; see they not that We gradually reduce the Ardh (Earth, land) from its outlying borders? Is it then they who will win?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 44).
With helium being unlikely to mix with metallic hydrogen, an additional release of energy could result from the sinking of the helium toward the center (Smoluchowski, 1967; Salpeter, 1973; Stevenson, 1975). In the Final quasi-equilibrium state, the presence of a core, or of any distribution of heavy elements in excess of the solar abundance, increases the average density and reduces the size of the planet (Bodenheimer et al., 2001). The core is mainly iron as indicated by the word Anzalna in the verse (Omari: Arabic; Iron Inzal): "And Anzalna Al-Hadid (Iron), in which is Great might, as well as many benefits for mankind." (Surat Al-Hadid (Iron) No. 57, verse 25).
However, the presence of a tidal heating source can allow the planet to reach thermal equilibrium and can also affect its size (Bodenheimer et al., 2001): The size is increased due to extra energy received by planet; as the word Madd can imply: "And the Ardh (Earth) We have Madd it." (Surah No. 50, Verse 7 and Surah No. 15, Verse 19). Also, "And it is He (Allâh) who Madd the Ardh (Earth)." (Surah No. 13, verse 3). The core and tidal heating effects are theoretically explored (Bodenheimer et al., 2001): The determinations of planetary radii is relevant in light of the recent spectroscopic discovery of a short-period planet around HD 209458 and the observed photometric occultation of its host star (Henry et al., 2000; Charbonneau et al., 2000), which has led to an estimate of its size.
V.3. Model Parameters (Bodenheimer et al., 2001)
There are several previous numerical calculations of the contraction of coreless protogiant planets in the Jovian mass range (Saumon et al., 1996; Guillot et al., 1996; Burrows et al., 1997). For calculations (Bodenheimer et al., 2001), the sources of energy included are the following: Stellar radiation incident on the planet, gravitational contraction of the envelope, and cooling of the warm interior. Stellar radiation incident on the planet is referred to by the following two verses: "And the Ardh (Earth) We have Madd it." (Surah No., 50 Verse 7 and Surah No. 15, Verse 19). And the verse "And it is He (Allâh) who Madd the Ardh (Earth)." (Surah No. 13, verse 3). The cooling of the warm interior is indicated by the verse: "And the ardh (earth), later on, Hath He Daha (extended to a wide expanse) * He draweth out Therefrom its water and its pasture * And the mountains Hath He firmly fixed." (Surah No. 79, verses: 30-32). The extraction of earths interior water had contributed to its cooling. This leads to mountains formation. The gravitational contraction of the envelope is indicated by the following verses: "See they not that We gradually reduce the Ardh (Earth, Land) from its outlying border?" (Surat Ar-Ra’d no.13, verse 41); and "We gradually reduce the Ardh (Earth, Land) from its outlying borders?" (Surat Al-Anbiyaa No. 21, verse 44).
Four sets of evolutionary models are presented (Bodenheimer et al., 2001). For the first two sets: Figure-1: A and B, they have used the orbital parameters derived for the planet around HD 209458 by adopting a planetary mass (Mp) of 0.63 Jupiter masses (MJ) in accordance with its observationally determined value (Henry et al., 2000; Charbonneau et al., 2000). Sets A and B correspond to models with and without a core, respectively. The calculations cover the history of the planet from the time accretion is complete, about 4 Myr, to 4.5 Gyr. Although the planet may have migrated from its formation site to its present orbital radius as a consequence of gravitational interactions with the disk, they have assumed that the migration took place during the formation phase. Allâh says: "And the Ardh (Earth), later on, Hath He daha." (Surah No. 79 verse 30). Among various meanings, the word daha in this verse may refer to earth’s migration; during the formation phase; from its formation site to its present orbital radius. The word daha also refers to extraction of Earth's interior water as Qur'an indicates: "And the Ardh (Earth), later on, Hath He daha * He draweth out Therefrom its water and its pasture." (Surah No. 79, verses: 30-31).
V.4. Planetary Models with or without Cores: HD 209458
The layered structure of Earth is strong evidence that Earth did melt in the past, so the denser matter could sink to the bottom and the lighter stuff float toward the surface. The sinking of hot iron to the Earth’s core would release additional thermal and gravitational potential energy, which would go to the inside, not to the surface where it could be radiated away (Swihart, 1992, p. 123): "And Anzalna Al-Hadid (Iron), in which is Great might, as well as many benefits for mankind." (Surat Al-Hadid (Iron) No. 57, verse 25) (Omari: Arabic; Iron Inzal).
In models A2 and B2, with enhanced metallicity in the planetary envelope, the final radii are actually very slightly larger than those in models A1 and B1. The resulting increase in the mean density is more than compensated for in that the enhanced grain opacity in the outer layers, corresponding to the increased metal abundance, tends to increase the radius of a nearly fully convective configuration. According to Qur'an, earth will eject its core on the Day of Judgment. For more massive planets, Bodenheimer et al. (2001) have constructed coreless models and obtained the variation of planetary radius with the dissipation rate; see Figure 2. For these three series of models, the lowest mass planet around HD 209458 is most sensitive to the additional internal heating because its gravitational binding energy is the smallest.
VI. The End of Earth
When discussing the Hadith: "The Day of Judgment will not be until time becomes lesser and lesser; when the year becomes as a month" (al-Albani, Saheeh al-Jama’, 7; Mishkat al-Masabeeh: 5376), it's mentioned that the earth-sun separation becomes . As earth gets closer to sun, the day will become extremely long (synchronous rotation). Indeed, most planets around solar-type stars with separations less than have eccentricities less than 0.05. Presumably, these planets rotate synchronously with their orbital period (Bodenheimer et al., 2001). Qur’an and Sunnah declare that the Day of Judgment has a length of 50,000 years: "The angels and the Spirit ascend Unto Him in a Day The measure whereof Is fifty thousand years." (Surah No. 70, verse 4). Also the verse: "When, behold, they find themselves over Al-Sahirah alive after their death" (An-Nazi'at 79:14).
For the day hereafter, the physical processes are the reversal to creation steps. Earth will be very close to the sun. Mountains will be destroyed and erased. Earth's excess temperature increase leads to core ejection, which allows heavy elements from the core to dissolve in the gas of the envelope. The ejection of the core increases metal abundance and radius as indicated by the verses: "And When the Ardh (Earth) is Madd * And casts forth what is within it And becomes (clean) empty." (Surat AL-Inshiqaq No. 84, verse 3-4). It casts forth its internal metals, and its interior becomes empty (Qurtubi, 1996, X: Part 19: 177-178). Cores ejection will convert part of the gravitational binding energy into thermal. Also cores internal heat energy will be liberated to the surface, which leads to furthermore inflation.
Earth gets so close to the Sun. The additional energy received from the sun indeed leads to inflation. Also dissipative heating will increase due to increased metal abundance at Earth's surface. The day hereafter, a relatively larger inflation will occur for planets that earned a metallic core in the processes of their creation; like Earth. This is clearly understood from the verse: "And when the Ardh (Earth) is madd * And casts forth what is within it and becomes -clean- empty." (Surah 84, verse 3-4). As earth gets madd, it will be expanded, enlarged, increased and inflated. Therefore, the place for the gathering of all people on the Day of Judgment will have no low or high land. There will be no landmark for anyone ().
For most of the models presented (Bodenheimer et al., 2001), the distribution of the energy dissipation is assumed to be directly proportional to the mass distribution within the planetary envelope. On The Day of Judgment, dissipation and whence inflation will be enhanced by the addition of extra mass to earth's envelope; as Qur'an indicates: "And When the Ardh (Earth) is Madd" (Surah 84, verse 3).
Finally, Ardh - interior part of the Universe - is also going to face its fatal. It will become unable to provide a gravitational support to galaxies. It will be rolled up in Allâh's right hand (Omari, 2004): "No just estimate Have they made of Allâh, Such as is due to Him: On the Day of Judgment The whole of Ardh - seven Ardhean: interior part of the Universe; not earth - Will be but his handful, And Samawat (Firmaments) will be Rolled up in His right hand: Glory to Him! High is He above The Partners they attribute To Him!" (Surah No. 39, verse 67).
VII. Red Giant
"As the Sun ages, helium collects in its center. After a lifetime of 9 billion years as main-sequence star, approximately 10% of the hydrogen in the Sun's core will have been converted into helium and nuclear fusion reactions will cease producing energy. The equilibrium between the total pressure force directed outwards and the gravitational force directed towards the centre of the Sun will be disturbed. The core of the Sun starts slowly collapsing under its own gravitational attraction. Fusion moves outward to a shell surrounding the core, where hydrogen-rich material is still present. The gravitational energy from the collapse will be converted into heat causing the shell to burn vigorously and so the Sun's outer layers to swell immensely. The surface is now far removed from the central energy source, cools and appears to glow red. The Sun now evolves into the stage of a red giant. For a few hundred million years, the expansion of the outer solar layers will continue, and the Sun will engulf the planet Mercury. The temperature on Venus and Earth will rise tremendously. Hydrogen fusion in the shell continues to deposit helium "ash" onto the core, which becomes even hotter and more massive.
In the Sun's core nuclear fusion of helium into carbon and oxygen will start to trigger even further the expansion of its outer layers. The helium-rich core is unable to lose heat fast enough and becomes unstable. In a very short time of few hours the core gets too hot and is forced to expand explosively. Outer layers of the Sun will absorb the core explosion but the core will no longer be able to produce energy by thermonuclear burning. Helium fusion then continues in a shell and the structure of the Sun would look like an onion: An outer, hydrogen-fusion layer and an inner, helium-fusion layer which surrounds an inert core of carbon and oxygen.
The old Sun may repeat the cycle of shrinking and swelling several times. In this stage of evolution the Sun is called an asymptotic giant branch star. Finally enough carbon will accumulate in the core to prevent the core explosion. Helium-shell burning will add heat to the outer layers of the Sun, mainly containing hydrogen and helium. The asymptotic giant Sun will generate eventually an intense wind that begins to carry off its outer envelope. The precise mechanism behind this phenomenon is not yet well understood. The Sun will expand a final time and after about 30 million years it will swallow Venus and Earth, outer layers will keep expanding outward and as much as half of the Sun's mass gets lost into space."
This visualization, which was written probably twenty years ago, is confirmed this month by a physical team. The following is their statement:
Astronomers have observed a distant planet where it probably rains iron.
It sounds like a science fiction movie, but this is the nature of some of the extreme worlds we're now discovering.
Wasp-76b, as it's known, orbits so close in to its host star, its dayside temperatures exceed 2,000C - hot enough to vaporize metals.
The planet's nightside, on the other hand, is 1,000 degrees cooler, allowing those metals to condense and rain out, resulting in different day-night chemistry
While metallic elements and a large temperature contrast have been observed, no chemical gradient has been measured across the surface of such an exoplanet. Different atmospheric chemistry between the day-to-night (“evening”) and night-to-day (“morning”) terminators could, however, be revealed as an asymmetric absorption signature during transit.
The absorption signal, attributed to neutral iron, is blueshifted by −11±0.7 km s-1 on the trailing limb (Fig. 3), which can be explained by a combination of planetary rotation and wind blowing from the hot dayside. In contrast, no signal arises from the nightside close to the morning terminator, showing that atomic iron is not absorbing starlight there. Iron must thus condense during its journey across the nightside.
It's a bizarre environment, according to Dr David Ehrenreich from the University of Geneva.
"Imagine instead of a drizzle of water droplets, you have iron droplets splashing down," he told BBC News.
The Swiss researcher and colleagues have just published their findings on this strange place in the journal Nature.
The planet, which is 640 light-years from us, is so close to its star it takes just 43 hours to complete one revolution.
Another of the planet's interesting features is that it always presents the same face to the star - a behavior which scientists call being "tidally locked". Earth's Moon does exactly the same thing; we only ever see one side.
This means, of course, the permanent dayside of Wasp-76b is being roasted.
In fact, this hemisphere must be so hot that all clouds are dispersed, and all molecules in the atmosphere are broken apart into individual atoms.
What's more, the extreme temperature difference this produces between the lit and unlit portions of the planet will be driving ferocious winds, up to 18,000km/h says Dr Ehrenreich's team.
Using the Espresso spectrometer, the scientists detected a strong iron vapour signature at the evening frontier, or terminator, where the day on Wasp-76b transitions to night. But when the group observed the morning transition, the iron signal was gone (Figure 3).
"What we surmise is that the iron is condensing on the night-side, which, although still hot at 1,400C, is cold enough that iron can condense as clouds, as rain, possibly as droplets. These could then fall into the deeper layers of the atmosphere which we can't access with our instrument," Dr Ehrenreich explained.
Wasp-76b is a monster gas planet that's twice the width of our Jupiter. Its unusual name comes from the UK-led Wasp telescope system that detected the world four years ago.
One of the scientists on the discovery team, Prof Don Pollacco from Warwick University, said it was hard to envisage such exotic worlds.
"This thing orbits so close to its star, it's essentially dancing in the outer atmosphere of that star and being subjected to all kinds of physics that, to put it bluntly, we don't really understand," he told BBC News.
"It will either end up in the star or the radiation field from the star will blow away the planet's atmosphere to leave just a hot, rocky core."
Figure 3: Polar view of the WASP-76 system. Fig. 3-a, The star WASP-76 and planet WASP-76b are represented to scale in size and distance. The planet is shown at different transit stages, with the transit contacts I, II, III and IV. During transit, the angle ζ between the planet terminator and the line of sight (dashed line in the middle) changes by 2 arcsin R*/a = 29.4°, where a is the semi-major axis. Fig. 3-b, Sketch of the absorption signature observed during transit, in the planet rest frame. The numbers refer to the insets. (1) During ingress, iron on the dayside is visible through the leading limb and creates an absorption around 0 km s-1. The trailing limb (branch behind) enters the stellar disc and progressively blueshifts the signal. (2) The signal around 0 km s-1 disappears as soon as no more iron is visible in the leading limb. Only the trailing limb contributes to the signal, which remain blueshifted around −11 km s-1. (3) The signal remains at this blueshifted velocity until the end of the transit.
الشكل 3: منظر قطبي لنظام WASP-76. الشكل 3-a ، يتم تمثيل النجم WASP-76 وكوكب WASP-76b بقياس رسم يراعي الحجوم والمسافات الحقيقية. يظهر الكوكب في مراحل عبور مختلفة، مع تفاعلات مراحل العبور الأول والثاني والثالث والرابع. أثناء العبور، تتغير الزاوية ζ بين فاصل الكوكب وخط البصر (الخط المتقطع في المنتصف) بمقدار 2 arcsin R*/a=29.4° ، حيث a يمثل المحور شبه الرئيسي. الشكل 3-b ، رسم تخطيطي لدليل الامتصاص الذي لوحظ أثناء العبور، في إطار السكون للكوكب. تشير الأرقام إلى المدخلات. (1) أثناء الدخول، يمكن رؤية الحديد على جانب النهار من خلال الطرف المتقدّم ويُحدث الحديد امتصاصًا حول 0 كم لكل ثانية. يدخل الطرف اللاحق إلى القرص النجمي ويُحدث في الإشارة انزياح نحو الأزرق بشكل تدريجي. (2) تختفي الإشارة حول 0 كم لكل ثانية بمجرد عدم ظهور المزيد من الحديد في الطرف المتقدّم. فقط الطرف اللاحق يساهم في الإشارة ، التي تظل بانزياح أزرق حول −11 كم لكل ثانية. (3) تظل الإشارة عند السرعة المقابلة لهذا الانزياح نحو الأزرق حتى نهاية العبور.
Earth is created via Madd (accretion, inflation, and tidal interaction) and contraction as indicated by both Qur'an and physics. Protogiant planets, after an initial hydrodynamic accretion phase, go through an extended phase of quasi-hydrostatic contraction. The rate of contraction slows down as the planet approaches an asymptotic final radius; at this point, most of the energy liberated is the result of cooling of the interior. This has been compared with verses from Qur'an that indicate same thing.
Also Earth will be Madd at The Day of Judgment. According to Qur'an and Sunnah, the Day of Judgment will have the time length of a 50,000 earthly days. Earth will be very close to the sun. Consistent with physics, the word Madd being used by Qur'an indicates the followings: Orbital eccentricity may be excited by a collision, secular perturbation by other planets, or tidal interaction with a very rapidly rotating star. The internal heating is associated with star planet interaction. The expansion of the planetary radius intensifies this type of interaction. This active feedback process shortens the reversal evolution timescale (Bodenheimer et al., 2001). Here, the reversal evolution is used to indicate that earth-sun separation will decrease on the Day of Judgment, contrary to increased separation during the few million years of earth's formation. Under some circumstances, the expansion of the planetary radius may induce the planet to swell beyond its Roche radius and become tidally disrupted (Trilling, et al. 1998). In multiple planetary systems such as Ups And, a further energy source is possible for the innermost planet through the dissipation of orbital eccentricity induced by secular perturbations from the outer planets (Bodenheimer et al., 2001). This is likely to occur for earth, since at the Day of Judgment Qur'an indicates: "And the sun and moon are joined together." (Surah 75, verse 9). Also "Then watch thou for the Day that the sky will bring forth a kind of smoke (or mist) plainly visible." (Surah 44, verse 10).
Furthermore, "And When the Ardh (Earth) is Madd." (Surah 84, verse 3). Madd means being supplied by accretion, spread out, inflated, having an increased surface area (Ibn Katheer, Part 4, p. 629; al-Tabri, 1995, XV:142; al-Qurtubi, 1996, Part 19: 177). al-Razi says (1995, XVI: Part 31: 105): “One has to know that increasing the area of the earth is a must, whether through inflation or accretion”. The ejection of earths core increases metal abundance and radius. Also the enhanced grain opacity in the outer layers, corresponding to the increased metal abundance, tends to increase the earths radius. Also, internal heating together with tidal dissipation are sources of energy. All these factors will inflate the earth at the Day of Judgment (al-Razi, 1995, XVI: Part 31: 105; Bodenheimer et al., 2001). This is consistent with the verses: "And when the Ardh (Earth) is Madd (inflated and spread out) * And casts forth what is within it and becomes -clean- empty" (Surah 84, verse 3-4). During the Red Giant phase of the sun, the temperature on Earth will rise tremendously. Earth outer layer will keep expanding outward.
The author is indebted and very grateful to Professors: Peter Bodenhimer, D. Lin, and R. Mardling from University of California, Santa Cruz. They are the authors of the main astrophysical reference being used by this article. Their paper explains the physics in Qur'anic verses addressing madd and daho of earth. Also I am indebted to them for their valuable suggestions.
The Glorious Quran
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FIG. 2. Radius of planet (in solar units) as a function of dissipation rate (in solar units) for the companions of HD 209458 (filled pentagons), Ups And (four-pointed stars), and Boo (open triangles).
 ESPRESSO - Echelle SPectrograph for Rocky Exoplanets and Stable Spectroscopic Observations
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