A novel postulate is proposed which assumes the Universe to be enclosed in a cold finite uniform smooth expanding spherical shell "SAMA'", which is a blackbody in complete thermodynamic equilibrium. SAMA' accounts for part of the cold sub-luminous matter. The model explains the homogeneity and isotropy of the background radiation as emanating from "SAMA'". The model also assumes an extremely massive hot core located at the center of the Universe, which is a hot dark matter (HDM). The HDM is a source of the great amount of power on the large scale structure of the Universe. Between the core and SAMA’, there exist seven separate concentric spherical shells of cold dark matter, called ARADEAN. ARADEAN (plural of AROAD) act as bases for galaxy formation and clustering (Figure, Figure). The Milky Way Galaxy (MWG) is located near "SAMA'" far away from the core (Figure, Figure). As such, the MWG belongs to the upper AROAD. The observed huge sheets of galaxies (Figure, Figure) are smeared on ARADEAN, where the gravitational field is isotropic. Also the increased mass-to-light ratio for larger scales; is due to larger volumes, which are not occupied by galaxies. Since the average intergalactic distances are larger than the radius of a typical galaxy, the mass-to-light ratio increases, when going from galactic scale to the level of the cluster. Furthermore, the measured local mass density is far below the critical density required to bring back remote galaxies. The model contributes to the feasibility of a finite Universe, where a physical Universe has to be finite, rather than expanding forever.
Subject headings: Background: Radiation - Open: universe - Closed: universe
1.1 The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR)
Luminous stars and galaxies only contribute less than of the closure density. Up to of the Universe is in the form of Dark Matter (DM) that does not emit any kind of electromagnetic radiation, but is detected by its gravitational effects. Thus it is the DM which is governing the dynamics of our universe (Padmanabhan 1998, p 112). DM suspected to be particles (Padmanabhan 1998, page 206). "Neutrinos have never been a viable candidate for a fairly simple reason. Neutrinos are relativistic (e.g. hot dark matter) and therefore they erase fluctuations on small scales (they free stream and fill the horizon in the early Universe). Thus only fluctuations on very large scale can still exist in a neutrino dominated Universe. These will cool and form structure but only on large scales, you will never form galaxies in this manner (Fairall 1998, page 175). Also Supernova 1987a neutrino time of flight studies as well as the Solar Neutrino experiment are consistent with the neutrino having a mass, but a very small mass, not one that can cosmologically dominate" (Fairall 1998, page 175).
On the smaller scales of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, dynamical estimates of the mass based on either rotation curves of galaxies (Roos 1994, page 155; Peacock 1999, p 371; Van Albada et al. 1985) or velocity dispersions of galaxies indicate that 90% of the total mass is sub-luminous. The luminous mass density of the Universe is only 10% of the closure density (Roos 1994, page 112). However, there is too little baryonic matter to close the universe (Roos 1994, page 112). This baryonic matter is supposedly locked up in stellar remnants (white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes) or just in very dim stars. Some of this is being tested with the microlensing experiments (Alcock 1993; Alcock et al. 1996; Auborg et al. 1993), and there are positive detections but their contribution to can not yet be precisely calculated, and the detected dark matter may indeed be non-baryonic in form (Peacock 1999, p 120-121).
The relatively smooth microwave background measured by COBE satellite is found rather difficult to explain in consideration with the large scale structure (e.g. the distribution of galaxies), due to huge power on large scales (Roos 1994, p 182; Smoot et al. 1992). To accommodate this, it is proposed to go to a mixed dark matter model (Fairal 1998 page 174- 175; Roos 1994, p 184- 187; Padmanabhan 1998, p 158; Saunders et al. 1991; Davis et al. 1993), in which there exist 30% t neutrino hot dark matter (HDM) for the large scale power, and 70% cold dark matter (CDM) to act as seed for galaxy formation and clustering (Figure). CDM are weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Supersymmetric models contain at least: photino, Zino, and gaugino. These particles are not detected up to a mass of about . Neutrinos may also be CDM candidates if very heavy ones, , exist. CDM particles may be light and having superweak interactions: Axion and gravitino. All CDM are hitherto unobserved particles (Roos 1994, page 180). Using the critical density (also called closure density ), however, some of these models seem to comply with the observed data (Fairall 1998, page 169; Ostricker and Strassler 1989; Geller 1991), while others fell short of producing enough structure on large scales (Efstathiou, et al. 1988; Park 1990). The best model hitherto is the suggestion of a mixed dark matter and an overall cosmological mass density less than of the closure density.
Here, an attempt is made at explaining and specifying a large percentage of the CDM existing even far beyond edges of galaxies. Also an attempt is made at explaining and specifying a large percentage of the HDM; being the source of the huge power on large scale structure of the Universe. The relatively smooth measured microwave background is naturally accounted for by the proposed model.
1.2 Question: Which came first, the galaxies or the large-scale structures? Did the galaxies form first and afterwards assemble into the large-scale structuress, or did the structures form first and then the galaxies condense within them. These scenarios are known as "bottom-up" and "top-down" respectively.
The discovery that some galaxies were arranged in sheets surrounding voids (Fairall 1998, page 118: Figure, Figure), and not just clusters, was interpreted as favoring "top-down" scenario (Figure ; Fairall 1998, page 166). There are still some merits in the " top-down" HDM, particularly in terms of the large-scale (Fairall 1998, page 175).
According to the N-body simulations; many researchers today are agreeable to mix HDM and CDM, which is possibly replacing the older CDM standard model (Fairall 1998, page 175).
An alternative approach has been to see the cosmic labyrinth as shaped by the growth of voids. Mention has already been made of the "explosion" theory, which is under exploration. It produces an elegant simulation whereby the growth and merging of bubble-like voids brings about a fabric remarkably similar to that observed. Again this is an attraction to a "top-down" scenario: there has to be a continuous medium trapped between the expanding bubbles. For the model proposed by this article, ARADEAN account for the expanding bubbles.
That the structures form first and then the galaxies condense within them, top-down scenario (Figures), is indicated by the verse:
وممّا يشير إلى هذا التّسلسل في الخلق وبشكل واضح قوله تعالى: (قل أإنّكم لتكفرون بالّذي خلق الأرض في يومين وتجعلون له أنداداً ذلك ربُّ العالمين * وجعل فيها رواسي من فوقها وبارك فيها وقدّر فيها أقواتها في أربعة أيّامٍ سوآءً للسائلين * ثمّ استوى إلى السّماء وهي دخان فقال لها وللأرض ائتيا طوعاً أو كرها قالتا أتينا طائعين * فقضاهنّ سبع سموات في يومين وأوحى في كلّ سماء أمرها وزيّنا السّماء الدّنيا بمصابيح وحفظاً ذلك تقدير العزيز العليم) [فصلت 9-12].
يرى الباحثُ أنّ الآية الكريمة (وجعل فيها رواسي من فوقها وبارك فيها) قد تشير إلى إحداث عدم تجانس طفيف في المادّة المظلمة (Dark matter) بدأ يتشكّل ويتكوّن ويرسو في الجزء العلوي من الأرض (الأرض بمعنى جهة السّفل). أو هو إشارة إلى المادّة الأوليّة الّتي بدأت تتشكّل في أعالي الأرضين السّبع؛ أي في الأماكن الأقرب إلى الحيّز الداخلي للبناء السّماوي الأوّل (العمري ، الأرضون السّبع؛ العمري، بناء السّماء والمادّة المظلمة الباردة؛ Padmanabhan, T., 1998, pages 129, 138, 157.). وهذه المادّة هي أساس بناء الأرض العليا بعد فتق الأرضين. ويراد بالأرض العليا تلك الّتي تحتضن مجرّة درب التّبانة؛ الّتي توجد فيها مجموعتنا الشّمسيّة (العمري، الأرضون السّبع).
(وَالسَّمَاءَ بَنَيْنَاهَا بِأَيْيدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ * وَالأرْضَ فَرَشْنَاهَا فَنِعْمَ الْمَاهِدُونَ) ]47-48 الذاريات[.
كما أنَّ البناء السّماوي في توسّعٍ دائم (سبق بيانه في بحث السماء)، فإنَّ فرش الأرض ومهادها مستمرّ إلى يوم القيامة، حيث أنَّ الأرض هنا تعني الأرضين السَّبع (أنظر بحث : الأرضون السّبع).
هذا وإنَّ اللّه سبحانه وتعالى قد خلق الأرض (الأرضين السَّبع) ثمَّ أمدَّها بالمادّة الّتي شكّلت المجرّات والنجوم، وهذا مما قد تشير إليه الآيات الكريمة: (والأرض مددناها) (الحجر سورة 15 آية 19، ق سورة 50 آية 7)، (وهو الّذي مدّ الأرض) (الرعد سورة 13 آية 3). إذْ إنّ المدّ في قوله سبحانه (والأرض مددناها) له معاني وأشكال كثيرة (فصلي : Earth’s Madd ، مدّ الأرض) وقد تعني هنا الإمداد المتتابع للأرضين السّبع وزيادتها بمادّة تكوين المجرّات والنّجوم.
Only once the texture was generated could the material fragment and condense into galaxies. The bubbles of galaxies would have merely expanded through one another (Ostricker and Strassler 1989; Fairall 1998, page 176).
Astronomers measuring the velocity of distant molecular clouds found that the velocity v does not decrease with distance r (Swihart 1992, Huchra 1989; Roos 1994, p155, 159; Coles and Lucchin 1996, page 83-84), which is contrary to Kepler's third law (Figure):
for a sphere; (1.a)
for circular disk (1.b)
Here is the mass of the Galaxy, and is the universal gravitational constant. The difference between the two expressions is somewhat insignificant, because it lies well within the inaccuracy of the measurement. Therefore, it will not matter much whether the galaxy is treated as a disk or a sphere, but spheres are easier to work with.
To reconcile the measured constant velocity with the calculated velocity using Kepler's third law, it has been suggested that the MWG contains a mass nearly times that of the visible galaxy, which extends far beyond the region of significant luminosity (Van Albada et al. 1985; Swihart 1992). This halo is assumed to be a simple sub-luminous (dark) matter which might permeate spiral galaxies all the way out to their very edges and far beyond.
The lower limit on the observed Deuterium abundance leads to an upper limit on the amount of nucleons present in the universe (Padmanabhan 1998, p 108-109). This bound implies that nucleons; which make up ordinary matter; could at best account for ten percent of the critical density. The amount of dark matter seen in various systems is far too large to be made of ordinary matter like protons and neutrons. Most cosmologists believe that the dark matter is made of exotic particles – particles that interact only very weakly and have been produced in abundant quantities in the very early phases of the universe (Padmanabhan 1998, p 114). Cosmological models can be in big trouble if universe is made of ordinary matter, and have the critical density (Padmanabhan 1998, p 115). The modle proposed by this article gives the name ARADEAN to this large scale structure made at early phases from large amount of exotic particles.
The most plausible candidates for this dark matter is until now thought of as main groups of Massive Compact Halo Objects (MACHOs) and Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) (Alcock et al. 1993; Coles and Lucchin 1996, p 84; Padmanabhan 1998, p114; Roos 1994, p181-182). It was proposed that MACHOs are non-luminous (do not reflect light) objects that make up halos around galaxies. Astronomers believe that MACHOs are made up primarily of red dwarf stars and black holes. Since these objects emit x-ray due to accretion from interstellar material, x-ray survey indicates that space density of these objects is too low to solve the DM problem (page 187, Shore 1989). Based on images produced by Hubble telescope, red dwarfs are only of the mass making up the galactic halo. On the other hand, WIMPs are tiny non-baryonic particles that usually interact with baryonic particles only gravitationally. In order for WIMPs to be included in the explanation of dark matter, there must be millions of them passing through matter every second. Although much research effort is devoted to prove their existence, the proof is yet to be seen. Neutrinos are seen in the laboratory. However, their masses are doubtful. Neutrinos can very well account for the dark matter (Padmanabhan 1998, p 114).
The IRAS satellite did not find a significant population of optically unseen but FIR bright point sources in the galaxy (Coles and Lucchin 1996, p 70). It showed that the emission from dust in the diffuse interstellar medium is consistent with the amount of neutral gas present in the plane. This severely constrains conventional explanation for the DM (Padmanabhan 1998, p 135; Roos 1994, p 180). Also x-Ray observation show that the very hot interstellar medium is only a small fraction of the total mass of luminous matter. The spatial extent of this gas is consistent with the galactic potential derived from the optical studies. Also the stars that produce UV radiation have very low ratio observation, and would not be likely candidates for DM. Baryonic matter at temperatures from to below the microwave background of can be ruled out by current observations (Padmanabhan 1998, page 114-115).
Far away galaxies are observed to be moving away from our MWG at highly relativistic speeds. Their final destination depends on how much matter there is in the Universe. If the local mass density is not high enough to reverse the direction of their velocities, light received from remote galaxies will always be redshifted. Since the measured local mass density is far below the critical density required to bring back these galaxies, it is evident that some of remote galaxies are probably moving towards a great attractive massive core. Thus, light received from remote galaxies will always be redshifted. However, for our observable Universe to be physical, it has to be finite, and it can not expand forever. Therefore, our Milky Way galaxy must be located near the expanding "SAMA'" rather than near the core, i.e. it is not at the center of the spherical Universe.
(وَالسَّمَاءَ بَنَيْنَاهَا بِأَيْيدٍ وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ (47) وَالْأَرْضَ فَرَشْنَاهَا فَنِعْمَ الْمَاهِدُونَ (48)) (سورة الذّاريات). الآية الكريمة (وَإِنَّا لَمُوسِعُونَ) فيها استمراريّة ، فالخالق سبحانه قادر وذو سعة ويرزق خلقه في كلّ حين ، كما أنّه يوسع بناء السّماء في كلّ لحظة . هذا وإنّ فرش ومهاد الأرض (بمعنى الأرضين السّبع) هو مستمرٌّ أيضاً.
The proposed model assumes the Universe to be formed of seven uniform and smooth spherical shells of CDM "SAMA'" (a previous chapter). The interior shell is billion light years radius (Roos 1994, page 102). Due to SAMA' expansion, a negative pressure is produced, and hence this generates a force that lefts up ARADEAN. Thus ARADEAN are continuously smeared. Beside, there is a massive hot dark matter, core, at the center of the Universe (previous chapter). Between core and "SAMA'", there exist a great percentage of the missing CDM, which is uniformly distributed over seven distinct and concentric expanding spherical shells, called ARADEAN (previous chapter; Roos 1994, page 155; Peacock 1999, p 371; Van Albada et al. 1985; Fairall 1998, page 106: Figure). The very hot massive core represents a large percentage of the HDM. The HDM is very likely to be the source of the huge power on large scale structure of the Universe. Analogous to the massive nucleus of an atom, the hot massive core has seven concentric shells, and is a likely source of huge power on large scale structure.
(ناركم هذه ، التي يوقد ابن (بنو) آدم ، جزء (واحد) من سبعين جزءا من حر جهنم. قالوا: والله! إن كانت لكافية ، يا رسول الله ! قال: فإنها فضلت عليها بتسعة وستين جزءا . كلها مثل حرها . وفي رواية: "كلهن مثل حرها" . ) (الراوي: أبو هريرة ، خلاصة الدرجة: صحيح ، المحدثون: مسلم ، المصدر: المسند الصحيح، الصفحة أو الرقم2843؛ الألباني، المصدر: صحيح الترمذي ، الصفحة أو الرقم2589؛ الألباني، المصدر: صحيح الجامع، الصفحة أو الرقم 6742).
(نار بني آدم التي يوقدون جزء من سبعين جزءا من نار جهنم، فقالوا: يا رسول الله إن كانت لكافية، قال: إنها فضلت عليها بتسعة وستين جزءا ) (الراوي: أبو هريرة، خلاصة الدرجة: متصل صحيح ، المحدّث: ابن عبدالبر ، المصدر: التمهيد ، الصفحة أو الرقم18/162 ).
(نار بني آدم التي توقدون جزء من سبعين جزءا من نار جهنم فقال رجل: إن كانت لكافية، فقال: لقد فضلت عليها بتسعة وستين جزءاً حراً فحراً ) (الراوي: أبو هريرة ، خلاصة الدرجة: على شرط مسلم ، المحدّث: ابن كثير، المصدر: تفسير القرآن ، الصفحة أو الرقم: 8/490 ).
(ناركم جزء من سبعين جزءاً من نار جهنم . قيل: يا رسول الله ، إن كانت لكافية ، قال: فضلت عليهن بتسعة وستين جزءا ، كلهن مثل حرها. ) (الراوي: أبو هريرة ، خلاصة الدرجة: صحيح، المحدّث: البخاري ، المصدر: الجامع الصحيح ، الصفحة أو الرقم3265 ).
(إن ناركم هذه جزء من سبعين جزء من نار جهنم ، وقد ضربت بالبحر مرتين ، ولولا ذلك ما جعل الله فيها منفعة لأحد ) (الراوي: أبو هريرة ، خلاصة الدرجة: على شرط الصحيحين، المحدثون: ابن كثير ، المصدر: نهاية البداية والنهاية ، الصفحة أو الرقم 2/122 ، المصدر: تفسير القرآن ، الصفحة أو الرقم4/129 ؛ الراوي: يحيى بن جعدة ، خلاصة الدرجة: على شرط الصحة ، المحدث: ابن كثير ، المصدر: تفسير القرآن ، الصفحة أو الرقم 8/490 ).
(إن ناركم هذه جزء من سبعين جزءا من نار جهنم ولولا أنها أطفئت بالماء مرتين ما انتفعتم بها وإنها لتدعو الله عز وجل أن لا يعيدها فيها ) (الراوي: أنس بن مالك ، خلاصة الدرجة: صحيح ، المحدث: الألباني ، المصدر: صحيح ابن ماجه ، الصفحة أو الرقم 3504 ).
(ناركم هذه جزء من سبعين جزءا من نار جهنم ، لكل جزء منها حرها ) (الراوي: أبو سعيد الخدري ، خلاصة الدرجة: صحيح ، المحدث: الألباني ، المصدر: صحيح الجامع ، الصفحة أو الرقم 6743 ).
(هذه النار جزء من مائة جزء من جهنم ) (الراوي: أبو هريرة ، خلاصة الدرجة: صحيح ، المحدث: الألباني ، المصدر: صحيح الجامع ، الصفحة أو الرقم 7006 ).
(تحسبون أن نار جهنم مثل ناركم هذه هي أشد سوادا من القار هي جزء من بضعة وستين جزءا منها أو نيف وأربعين ) (الراوي: أبو هريرة ، خلاصة الدرجة: صحيح ، المحدّث: الألباني ، المصدر: صحيح الترغيب ، الصفحة أو الرقم 3666 ).
ذكرت الأحاديث نسباً متفاوتة: هذه النار جزء من مائة جزء من جهنم، أو هي جزء من بضعة وستين جزءاً منها أو نيف وأربعين. ينسجم تفاوت هذه النسب مع كون جهنّم أَدْرَاك، فكلّ درك له درجة حرارة خاصّة به.
(إنما حر جهنم على أمتي كحر الحمام ) (الراوي: أبو بكر الصديق ، خلاصة الدرجة: رجاله موثوقون ، المحدّث: السخاوي ، المصدر: المقاصد الحسنة ، الصفحة أو الرقم 132 ).
نفس في الشتاء ونفس في الصيف
لقد أذن اللّه للنار بنَفَسين اثنين: (نَفَسٌ في الشتاء و نَفَسٌ في الصيف)، كما ورد في الحديث الصحيح الذي يرويه أبو هريرة، وفيما يلي بعض ألفاظ هذا الحديث:
(اشتكت النار إلى ربها ، فقالت: رب أكل بعضي بعضا ، فأذن لي بِنَفَسَين: نَفَسٌ في الشتاء ونَفَسٌ في الصيف ، فأشد ما تجدون من الحر ، وأشد ما تجدون من الزمهرير . ) (المحدّث: البخاري ، المصدر: الجامع الصحيح ، الصفحة أو الرقم3260 ).
(اشتكت النار إلى ربها . فقالت: يا رب ! أكل بعضي بعضا . فأذن لها بِنَفَسَين: نفس في الشتاء و نَفَسٌ في الصيف . فهو أشد ما تجدون من الحر . وأشد ما تجدون من الزمهرير ) (المحدّثون: مسلم ، المصدر: المسند الصحيح ، الصفحة أو الرقم 617؛ الألباني ، المصدر: صحيح الجامع ، الصفحة أو الرقم 990 ).
(اشتكت النار إلى ربها ، فقالت: يا رب ! أكل بعضي بعضاً ، فجعل لها نفساً في الشتاء ونفساً في الصيف ، فشدة ما تجدون من البرد من زمهريرها ، وشدة ما تجدون في الصيف من الحر من سمومها ) (المحدّث: ابن عبدالبر ، المصدر: الاستذكار ، الصفحة أو الرقم 1/141).
(اشتكت النار إلى ربها ، و قالت: يا رب أكل بعضي بعضا ، فجعل لها نفسين ؛ نفساً في الشتاء ، ونفساً في الصيف ، فأما نفسها في الشتاء فهو زمهرير ، و أما نفسها في الصيف فسموم ) (المحدّث: الألباني ، المصدر: صحيح الجامع ، الصفحة أو الرقم 991 ).
(اشتكت النار إلى ربها وقالت: أكل بعضي بعضا ، فجعل لها نفسين ؛ نفساً في الشتاء ، ونفساً في الصيف . فأما نفسها في الشتاء: فزمهرير ، وأما نفسها في الصيف: فسموم ) (المحدّث: الألباني ، المصدر: صحيح الترمذي ، الصفحة أو الرقم 2592 ).
(اشتكت النار إلى ربها فقالت يا رب أكل بعضي بعضا فجعل لها نفسين نفس في الشتاء ونفس في الصيف فشدة ما تجدون من البرد من زمهريرها وشدة ما تجدون من الحر من سمومها ) (الألباني ، المصدر: صحيح ابن ماجه، الصفحة أو الرقم 3505 ).
(وشدة ما تجدون من الحر من سمومها): تشير هذه العبارة إلى أنّ التّدفق الشّمسي الواصل للأرض هو من رتبة التّدفق الواصل إليها من ضحضاح النار (الدَّرْكِ العلوي البارد نسبيّاً). وبما أنّ النار بعيدة جدّا، لذا فإنّ درجة حرارتها عالية جدّاً بالمقارنة مع درجة حرارة الشّمس. حيث يتناسب التّدفق عكسيّاً مع مربّع المسافة، وطرديّاً مع القوة الرابعة لدرجة الحرارة الفعّالة (effective temperature).
المنافقون في الدرك الأسفل من النار
(لَهَا سَبْعَةُ أَبْوَابٍ لِكُلِّ بَابٍ مِنْهُمْ جُزْءٌ مَقْسُومٌ) (الحجر 44).
(عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ لِجَهَنَّمَ سَبْعَةُ أَبْوَابٍ بَابٌ مِنْهَا لِمَنْ سَلَّ سَيْفَهُ عَلَى أُمَّتِي أَوْ قَالَ أُمَّةِ مُحَمَّدٍ) (مسند أحمد- مسند المكثرين من الصحابة-5431).
أوقد على النار حتى اسودّت
إنّ هذا الترتيب لتغيّر لون جهنّم (حتى احمرت.. حتى ابيضت .. حتى اسودت) ليؤكّد قطعاً تزايد درجة حرارة جهنّم. ينبعث الطيف الأبيض من جسم درجة حرارته أعلى من الجسم الذي يكون طيف إشعاعه أحمر. ولمّا تزايد الإيقاد على النّار أصبح الطيف المنبعث أسوداً (أطواله الموجيّة أقلُّ من أطوال الطيف المرئي)؛ وذلك بسبب الارتفاع المتزايد في درجة حرارة جهنّم (الشكل).
The core is also analogous to the massive hot Sun of our solar system. The model puts the massive hot core at the center to provide the maximum possible separation between hot and cold dark matter, so as to avoid destructive excessive heat transfer leading to thermal equilibrium, and destruction of the Universe due to core's extremely large gravitational potential.
All observable galaxies, clusters, etc. are distributed over ARADEAN. The Local Group of galaxies, beside some other clusters, and sheets of galaxies are distributed over the top most AROAD that is close to "SAMA'". The model assumes that MWG is located in the neighborhood of "SAMA'", and is very far away from the massive hot core.
With each AROAD being characterized by its uniform surface mass distribution, it explains the CDM which is proposed to extend even far beyond spiral arms edges. Each AROAD acts as a seed or base for galaxy formation, and clustering (Figure, Figure, Figure). Beside, AROAD provides the explanation of the constancy of the velocity of distant molecular clouds. With the lower "SAMA'" being a shell of billion light years radius, it also explains the relatively smooth microwave background measured by COBE satellite as blackbody radiation from "SAMA'", which is in complete thermodynamic equilibrium (Figure).
According to Einstein's theory, the size of the universe would have been zero at its starting time. This moment is called singularity in mathematics and Big-bang in literature. Thus Einstein's theory breaks down when the size of the universe is very small, and has to be replaced by a better theory (Padmanabhan 1998, p 100).
The model proposes that a huge volume of finite density material, water for example, existed before the Big Bang. The observed three degree microwave background radiation filling the Universe indicates that the Universe was tremendously hot when just a few seconds old. The Universe's light-element abundance is another important criterion by which the Big Bang hypothesis is verified. Thus it is likely that God allows for the occurrence of Big Bang explosion in the core of this tremendously huge water. After the Big Bang, the Universe undergoes an early brief interval of rapid expansion, and the photon gas cooled after this expansion. "SAMA- ARADEAN" shells form very early with the expansion of the Universe. By this time, the surface of "SAMA" is so smooth. The interior shell of "SAMA" reflects photons back inside the shell. So radiation from all observable parts of the Universe is contained within the interior shell of "SAMA", and the energy of the blackbody radiation remains the same, except for the work that was done over the expansion period of the Universe.
In the radiation dominated universe, the expansion rate is such that no significant mixing can take place. Regions of the universe having different temperatures will never come to equilibrium and reach same temperature (Padmanabhan 1998, p 118). The proposed model suggests that the region we are observing today is made out of a uniform patch, expanded by a large factor (Padmanabhan 1998, p 119). Theoreticians believe that inflation is a good model, even it does not have any observational support. The proposed model avoids this difficulty in two aspects: The universe starts with a very huge volume. Secondly, the expansion rate decreases with the formation of the shells. Beside, as the universe expands, the energy density decreases and the expansion rate decreases down (Padmanabhan 1998, p 119).
The first law of thermodynamics states that for an isentropicaly expanding Universe, the decrease in the blackbody radiation energy, , is equal to the work, , done by radiation pressure, P, against the expanding spherical shell
Here is the radius of the shell, is the blackbody radiation temperature, is the volume of the spherical shell, is Stefan-Boltzmann constant, and is the speed of light. According to Einstein's equation, the energy is the sum of contributions from both matter and radiation
Where is the mass density of radiation, the energy density, and is the density of matter. Substituting the previous expression for volume into equation 2, we obtain
If pressure of matter is neglected compared to radiation pressure, then equation 4 becomes (page 80/ Rowan-Robinson 1996)
After decoupling the conversion between matter and radiation can be neglected, and each of the two terms in the above equation is separately zero
The solutions for equations 6 are
Here and are constants.
Since the spectrum is Planck balckbody, the total radiation energy density is proportional to the fourth power of the radiation temperature
Using equations 7 and 8, the relation between the radius of the Universe and the radiation temperature is
Also if the previous expression for the radiation pressure is substituted into equation 2, equation 8 is derived as follows:
The Helmholtz free energy is
Here is Boltzmann constant, is Plank's constant, and is the speed of light. The entropy is
For an isentropic expansion of photon gas, is constant, and . Assuming that the temperature of the cosmic blackbody radiation was decoupled from the temperature of matter when both were at , then the radius of the Universe at that time compared to its radius when is such that, . If the expansion occurs at the speed of light, to say, time of decoupling occurs when the Universe was about , about of its age at .
In a matter-dominated Universe, pressure can be neglected compared to the local rest mass density. As such, the continuity equation reduces to . Here is the mass density at decoupling time, i.e. when , and is the mass density when . When , some proportion of hydrogen was converted by thermonuclear fusion into Helium. For , it is found that the fraction of matter converted to helium would be almost by mass, exactly what is needed to explain the composition of our galaxy(page 84 Rowan-Robinson 1996).
The number density of photons having wavelengths between and is
The total number of photons for all wavelengths is
Inside the spherical shell having volume , the total number of photons for all wavelengths is
The "SAMA- ARADEAN" model is characterized by conserving the total number of photons in the Universe.
Observations show that our universe behaves as though it is embedded in a box at a temperature of about (Fairall 1998, page 159: Figure). This radiation believed to be a relic of an earlier hot phase of the universe, is called the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) (Padmanabhan 1998, page 110).
وهذا بيّنٌ في الآية الكريمة: (ثُمَّ اسْتَوَى إِلَى السَّمَاءِ وَهِيَ دُخَانٌ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلأرْضِ اِئْتِيَا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًا قَالَتَا أَتَيْنَا طَائِعِينَ) [فصّلت آية 11 ] . الظاهر أنّ المادة التي خلقت منها السماء كانت دخاناً … وفيه أيضاً أنّه خلق السماوات من أجزاء مظلمة (الأندلسي الغرناطي). لقد كانت درجة حرارة السّماء مرتفعة وهي في الحالة الدّخانيّة، وبالتالي فهي في حالة إتزان حراري (Thermodynamic equilibrium) ولها إشعاع الجسم الأسود (blackbody radiation). ثمّ بردت مع رفع السّمك (التّمدّد) بدليل (أَأَنْتُمْ أَشَدُّ خَلْقًا أَمْ السَّمَاءُ بَنَاهَا * رَفَعَ سَمْكَهَا فَسَوَّاهَا * وَأَغْطَشَ لَيْلَهَا وَأَخْرَجَ ضُحَاهَا) [النّازعات الآيات 27-29] (أنظر: بحث البناء السّماوي).
The interior reflective surface of "SAMA'" seems to be in thermodynamic equilibrium, where the CMBR in different directions is very nearly uniform. Its fluctuations are extremely small, representing deviations of only about 10-5 of its average temperature (Smoot et al. 1992). Today, the most optimistic interpretation of the isotropy of the blackbody background radiation guarantees this simple isotropic model only back to . If the radius of the horizon at time t is of the order , the volume is very small at early times and the density is extremely high. This leads to the horizon problem, which is something of a paradox. The measurements of the microwave background radiation in two opposite directions seem to be identical to one part in , despite the two regions never having yet been in causal contact (Rowan-Robinson 1996 page 78). The proposed model solves this problem on the assumption that the thermal radiation filling the universe has the temperature of "SAMA'", which is in complete thermodynamic equilibrium. Also galaxies that belong to a given particular shell are actually in causal contact, since they belong to the same gravitational energy level. The model also avoids the Horizon problem, since it assumes that the radius of the Universe is large even at early times when the Big Bang explosion occurred in the core of a tremendously large amount of water, rather than in a very dense material having volume of the order of our solar system.
A fundamental tenet of modern cosmology is that we do not occupy a special region of the Universe, but that all locations are equivalent. The tenet of no preferred position is either right or wrong. If right, then we have to try various positions for our MWG, relative to the center of the Universe, and see which works better and explains observation. However, if there is a preferred position for our mindless MWG, it has to be the best choice of the Great Merciful God. If the tenet of no preferred position is to force all galaxies to be at given location from the center of the Universe having finite mass density, then our Universe has to have an infinite radius. And the Universe is no longer a physical one. However, the observed local mean mass density is low even compared to the critical value; the minimum density which is needed for the expansion of the universe to be halted eventually and be followed by a contraction phase. Thus, the misconception of the tenet is forcing our Universe to become infinite in size. A way out that rescue the Big Bang and closes our finite Universe, can be seen when we realize that we do have a Merciful God, who has chosen for us the MWG which has a location very close to "SAMA'", rather than being close to the massive hot core. Not being aware of "SAMA'", astronomers are deceived by images. The "SAMA- ARADEAN" model is aware of the reflective mirror, and puts the MWG close to "SAMA'" to explain various things. Of course, not only the local group of galaxies are close to "SAMA'".
Various systems in nature, both at microscopic and macroscopic levels, seem to indicate some sort of pattern in the creation scheme. An atom has a massive nucleus and electrons circling around it at different radii corresponding to different energy levels. Similarly, the planets of our solar system are circling around the massive hot sun at different radii corresponding to different energy levels. The same is suspected to occur at the level of a galaxy. Stars are circling in the MWG around a hot massive galactic core at different radii corresponding to different energy levels. Infrared measurements of Doppler shifts from the material near the center suggests (but do not prove) that there is a giant black hole, , at the center. Why shouldn't the Universe follow the same pattern? The model assumes that our Universe as a whole is yet another macroscopic system which has a very hot massive core, around which galaxies and clusters are located at different radii corresponding to seven different energy levels, called ARADEAN. With the local group galaxies being located close to "SAMA'" and very far away from the core, i.e. belong to the top most AROAD, they are analogous to higher energy level electrons of an atom. Simplicity was required in this model, since we are after the physics as a first step.
Due to the dynamical interaction of Andromeda with the members of the local group; its spectrum exhibits a blueshift corresponding to a velocity of approach of order 80 km/sec (page 468/ Bowers and Deeming 1984). As galaxies of increasingly greater distances d from the MWG (at point m Figure 3; below) are observed, some have spectra that are redshifted, and fewer have blueshifted spectra. A galaxy at point b is further away from m compared to a galaxy at point a, and is moving faster towards the center of the universe; since it is closer to the massive core. For a galaxy moving radially along the line , a blue shift might be observed at m; when galaxy is moving along dotted line (if its velocity towards m exceeds the velocity of expansion of Sama'). When the galaxy reaches point b, it starts to recede from m, and a redshift is observed when moving along the solid line from point to . As far as the radial component of velocity is concerned, a redshift is observed at m from any galaxy lying inside the top spherical shell centered at o, and having radius , where is the radius of the spherical shell "SAMA'". The length of the line is related to as .
Both redshift and velocity of galaxies are found to increase with their distance away from our MWG. A redshift from a galaxy for which velocity is proportional to its distance, means that it is close to "SAMA'". The model attributes this velocity to three forces: Force of attraction from galaxies close to "SAMA", and gravitational force from matter lying inside the Gaussian surface whose radius is the distance from core to the MWG. Second is force of attraction from "SAMA'" itself (negative pressure). The motion of galaxies close to "SAMA'" is analogous to rotation curve near the center of the MWG. Depending on angle of observation, either blueshifted or redshifted light can be received from stars within the galaxy due to their rotational motion, and from galaxies due to their rotation within a cluster.
All observations indicate that remote galaxies will continue streaming away from us. Some of the galaxies that are both far from "SAMA", and streaming away from the MWG are likely to be accreting at core of our bounded Universe. There have been numerous claims of anomalous streaming motions, where galaxies in particular regions of the sky are moving together at until now unexplained high velocities. As studies of these regions have improved, discrepancies between observed peculiar velocities and density structures giving rise to them have tended to be resolved (Rowan-Robinson 1996 page 145). Galaxies with highly relativistic speeds are likely to be trapped by a steep gravitational potential well at the core of the Universe. The gravitational potential energies of such galaxies are being converted into thermal energy, due to capturing by the core. The temperature of the hot massive core has been increasing for billions of years, and thus contributes to the huge power on large scale structure of the Universe. The destruction of our Universe will be caused by the displacement of the core to a position close enough from "SAMA'", which will destroy and burn the whole "SAMA- ARADEAN" structure. Finally, all galaxies are going to be detached from "SAMA- ARADEAN" and get trapped by the gravitational potential of the core. This is analogous to electrons captured by the nuclei, as a collapsing star evolves into a neutron star.
Does observation provide further support of this model?
3.1 GALAXY M31
Both radio and optical observations of the rotation curve for the spiral galaxy M31 indicate that the rotational velocity is essentially constant, for . This implies that the mass distribution at the outer edge of a spiral arm is . Rotation curves of spiral galaxies give mass-to-light ratios . The rotation curve observed for galaxy M31 remains flat to . Astronomers proposed the mass of the galaxy to be , in order to explain the constant velocity, and . This ratio for is consistent with mass estimates from the Virial theorem applied to systems containing spiral galaxies similar to M31, and is also consistent with mass estimates based on motion of galaxies in the local group (page 501-502/ Bowers and Deeming 1984). CDM constituting ARADEAN accounts for this increased ratio.
The rotation curve for the MWG, and for spiral galaxies in general, show a relatively steep linear function of radius near the center. At a certain distance, the velocity levels off and remains almost constant to very large radii (Figure). For the Milky Way, levels off near , and remains almost constant out to a distance more than twice the sun's distance from the center,. If most of the mass of the MWG were contained in the visible disk, the orbital velocities of outlying objects would decrease in rough agreement with Kepler's third law, . However, measurements show that velocities do not decrease at all with distances greater than the radius of the galaxy. In fact, there are indications that the velocity beyond the sun may increase to about 300 km/s. If the velocity is constant at spiral arms edges and far beyond, then the mass there is . The same thing has been observed for other spiral galaxies. Galaxies NGC 2742, NGC 1421, NGC 2998, and MWG have the same rotational speed for distances from the center (Zeilik 1994, page 445, 418). As such, the "SAMA- ARADEAN" model accounts for the needed CDM as concentric spherical shells. Each has a uniform surface mass density that extends extremely far beyond the luminous galactic disk. Since rotation curves show constant velocity far beyond the observed limits of galaxies, astronomers proposed that . Based on the observation that at , astronomers claimed a minimum mass of for the MWG. This is a strong indication of the existence of a uniformly distributed significant amount of matter extending far beyond the regions of significant luminosity (Figure). The MWG is a member of perhaps two dozen galaxies composing a cluster of galaxies called the Local Group, whose mass is dominated by two spirals: The MWG and the Andromeda; M31. Thus, the MWG and M31 can be considered to make a binary galaxy. The estimated mass for a gravitationally bound Local Group is greater than . The hidden matter may dominate the masses of the spiral galaxies (Swihart 1992). This hidden matter is part of the top most AROAD shell being covered by the local group.
Extensive surveys of forbidden line emissions from disk matter in Sa and Sc galaxies indicate that is essentially flat. Among the trends that can be established from these observations is approaches a constant value at large distances; i.e. close to edges of spiral arms (Figure). Also the proposed range for the mass of spiral galaxies is to , estimates of the mass of our galaxy have been extended, based on orbital motion of CO clouds, (), globular clusters ( to ), and the assumed orbits of SMC (), LMC (), and satellite galaxies (). All are consistent with approaching a constant value; where the rotational velocity, . Based on this velocity, the minimum galactic mass proposed by astronomers is (Bowers and Deeming page 502).
Based on above observations, the proposed galactic masses are claimed to be lower limits. Astrophysicists think that this may raise serious problems, because the mass-to-luminosity ratio increases with increasing radius in the disk. The additional mass (nearly ten times of previous estimates) can not be due to stars. Furthermore, it has been proposed that the mass can not lie within the galactic disk, since it would result in an instability leading to bar formation. It has been suggested that spiral galaxies contain massive halos of extremely low luminosity matter, which incidentally helps to stabilize gaseous disks; but no such halos have been observed. Theory requires that they consist of matter with a large mass-to-light ratio. Suggested candidates include dead stars (perhaps white dwarfs), substellar masses formed during the initial stages of the galaxy formation, and even large masses of neutrinos and black holes (Bowers and Deeming page 502). However, these suggested masses are far below the needed mass, and they do not comply with the stability of our solar system. The model identifies this mass as part of the top AROAD, which is a uniform spherical shell of CDM composed of exotic particles.
The mass required to explain the observed component of acceleration perpendicular to the galactic plane in the solar neighborhood, , exceeds the observed mass by a factor of about 2 to 3. This mass is not likely made up by the presence of numerous black holes or more exotic objects in the plane, since the stability of the solar system is such as to preclude the numerous encounters with such gravitational objects in its lifetime. It appears that there must be a considerable amount of uniformly distributed, low-mass objects or some other explanation for the mass (Shore 1989) (Figure). The "SAMA- ARADEAN" model explains this as follows: Since the radii for both the top most AROAD, and "SAMA'" are of the order of 13 billions lys, they can be treated as planar slabs sandwiching the MWG. The gravitational force of attraction between top most AROAD and an outlying object, of mass m at a distance is
Here is mass per unit area of "AROAR'", and is the gravitational constant. Also the gravitational field due to core and interior shells of ARADEAN is isotropic. Beside the centripetal force, these two forces have a major role in holding our galaxy together. The acceleration, force, and thus velocity are all independent of the distance from the center of the galaxy. Moreover, observation shows that material in the innermost spiral arm around the galactic center is not circling around the center, but expanding away from it.
Most galaxies are found to belong to gravitationally bound clusters, each containing between 100 to 1000 individual members. Methods used to measure masses of stars in binary systems can be adapted to give mass estimates for bound pairs of galaxies. Making use of the Virial theorem, an expression can be derived that contains only observed quantities, and the galactic masses. Mass averages for galaxies are found to be systematically large compared with estimates based on pairs, velocity dispersions, or rotation curves in single galaxies (Table 1). For example, the proposed average mass of E galaxies in the Virgo E cluster is ; and the proposed average mass per galaxy in the Hercules cluster, which contains spiral and elliptical galaxies, is . These values are about ten times larger than the averages obtained from pairs. So far, the two alternative explanations for the discrepancy are: Only about ten percent of matter in the Universe ends up in galaxies, and the rest is unseen. A second explanation is to assume that clusters are in fact unbound systems (Bowers and Deeming page 504). However, cross-correlation of clusters with the general galaxy distribution, and large-scale maps of the galaxy density, show that the extent of rich clusters like the Virgo Cluster is very large (up to a hundred million light years), and they join smoothly onto neighboring clusters. The galaxy distribution is found to be clustered on all scales up to at least one hundred million light years (page 43 Rowan-Robinson 1996). There is also evidence for huge sheets of galaxies and voids on scales of 100-300 million light years (Figure , Figure, Figure). One of these sheets stretches between the Coma and Hercules clusters, is known as the "Great Wall of Galaxies" (Rowan-Robinson 1996, page 43).
Huge sheets and galaxy clustering on scales up to hundred million light years indicate that only about ten percent of matter in the Universe ends up in galaxies. The evidence for huge sheets of galaxies indicate each sheet is smeared over one of the spherical shells of ARADEAN (Figure, Figure, Figure). The same conclusion is also strongly supported by the increased mass-to-light ratio as we go to larger scales; from galaxies to binaries to galaxy groups, and clusters (Table 1). The "SAMA- ARADEAN" model explains this increased ratio for larger scales as an increased ratio of average galactic separation to typical galactic radius, which results in a smaller percentage of the area that galaxies can cover from corresponding AROAD shell. This is an indication that ARADEAN shells are also responsible for binding clusters and groups of galaxies (Figure).
Table 1: Mass-to-Light Ratios for Galaxies (Huchra, Zeilik 1994, page 214).
With the assumption that MWG is located in the neighborhood of "SAMA'", it is extremely far away from the center of the Universe (Figure; Figure, Figure). Thus, redshifted light being received from an interior galaxy I far from "SAMA'", means that galaxy is probably streaming radially towards the center of our bounded closed Universe (Figure 3; below). The force causing the motion of galaxy I is the gravitational attraction of matter inside a gaussian spherical surface interior to galaxy I; and concentric with all shells. Both redshift and velocity of galaxies far from "SAMA'" are found to increase with their distance from our MWG. All observations indicate that remote galaxies will continue streaming away from us.
Applying Newtonian cosmology for an isotropic homogeneous matter-dominated Universe, one can calculate the current average mass density of matter inside the Gaussian spherical surface interior to galaxy I. The current average mass density is related to deceleration parameter and Hubble's parameter (Bowers and Deeming 1984) by
For , and , the density is
On the other hand, the density of the observed matter of the Universe in the local region is only . In fact the larger the volume of space sampled, the lower the mean density is found, with no sign of leveling off to any constant value at some sample size. According to the "SAMA- ARADEAN" model, this observed decreasing mean density is a manifestation of the increased mass-to-light ratio when going to larger scales (Table 1).
Also the current average mass density of the Universe being calculated (Eq. 18) represents the average density near the center of the Universe for a Gaussian surface interior to galaxy I. So times greater than the observed local mean density. Now this supports even further the suggested "SAMA- ARADEAN" model, as opposed to the problem of "missing mass" arising when the MWG is assumed to be at the center of the Universe. Furthermore, the critical density which distinguishes an open Universe from a closed one is
The current average mass density of the Universe (eq. 18) is greater than the critical density by a factor . Thus, the Universe is closed, and remote galaxies will continue to stream towards the core of the Universe.
The night sky is expected to be about as bright as the surface of a star (Padmanabhan 1998, p101). However, observation indicates that apart from the MWG, the night sky is remarkably dark. Thus Olbers' paradox "Why is the sky dark at night?" is not resolved by allowing for interstellar dust since this absorbs and radiates energy. Astronomers suggested resolutions are: The Universe is young, so stars have only been shining for about ten billion years (Roos 1994, p 14), or the Universe is of infinite age and is expanding so as to avoid a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. Expansion "cools off" the Universe, due to the Doppler shift which reddens light and reduces energy of photons that are received from a receding source (Roos 1994, p 15). However, an infinite age expanding Universe of infinite size is not physical. As such, the only physical resolution is the Universe be young, stars have only been shining for about ten billion years. Some of the galaxies that are attached to the lower shell are likely collapsing into the core. Galaxies close to SAMA are also receding from each other. Thus expansion avoids a state of thermodynamic equilibrium.
The "SAMA- ARADEAN" model proposes that CDM: SAMA' and shells of ARADEAN act as seed for galaxy formation and clustering (Figure; Figure). Since Hubble's relationship describes a relation between distance and velocity for stars adjacent to "SAMA'", what astronomers derive for the age of the Universe using the Hubble relationship, does not represent the age of the universe, where this is no longer the time needed to trace galaxies back to their starting point. Thus, the physical resolution of young Universe is not ruled out by the large Hubble age.
Observations reveal that the rotational velocity does not obey Kepler's third law; ; when is greater than the radius of the galaxy. Thus, astronomers propose that the galaxy contains a significant amount of dark matter existing far beyond the regions of significant luminosity. Observations indicate that for a gravitationally bound Local Group, the unseen dark matter should dominate the masses of spiral galaxies. Actually, only about five percent of matter in the Universe ends up in galaxies, and the rest is unseen dark matter. However, there is no observed evidence that provides concrete data for the existence of this dark matter as part of the galaxy. The proposed "SAMA- ARADEAN" model explains the unseen CDM as part of uniform spherical shells "SAMA- ARADEAN" surrounding the HDM core. Since intergalactic distances are large compared with the dimensions of a typical galaxy, the seat for most of the CDM must be contained in the structure of "SAMA- ARADEAN", and most of the HDM is contained in the core. The evidence for the existence of huge sheets of galaxies indicates that they are adjacent to ARADEAN shells. Over a given shell, the isotropic radial gravitational field helps to form a gravitationally bound sheet. This is consistent with the observation that less than five percent of matter in the Universe ends up in galaxies, which is supported by the increased mass-to-light ratio for larger scales. This is also consistent with observation that in the solar neighborhood, the observed component of acceleration perpendicular to the galactic plane is constant.
Extensive surveys of forbidden line emission from disk matter in Sa and Sc galaxies indicate that is essentially flat, and approaches a constant value at the outer edges of the spiral arms. The same thing has been observed for the MWG from orbital motion of CO clouds, globular clusters, and the assumed orbits of SMC, LMC, and satellite galaxies. The constancy of near the outer edges of the spiral arms is a further support of the uniform surface mass density of "SAMA- ARADEAN". As such the mass density of the universe is isotropic, and central cosmic gravitational force is isotropic.
The uniformity of the three degree cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) in different directions can also be explained as blackbody radiation from "SAMA'", which is a shell of 13 billion lys radius, and is in complete thermodynamic equilibrium. As for the existence of hot dark matter, which is likely to be the source of huge power on large scale structure of the Universe, the massive hot core at the center of the Universe accounts for it. Further proof is the redshifted light received from galaxies receding from us at highly relativistic speeds, some of which are likely to be trapped by the steep gravitational potential of the core. Emission from such galaxies cools off due to the Doppler redshift, which reduces their photon energies.
The "SAMA- ARADEAN" model assumes the distribution of CDM of the Universe to be isotropic, and makes concentric spherical shells "SAMA- ARADEAN". Also most of the cosmic HDM constitutes a massive hot core at Universe's center. All galaxies, clusters, etc. are distributed over seven shells constituting ARADEAN. The MWG is located near "SAMA'", far away from the massive hot core.
After the Big Bang, the size of the Universe was very big, beside it undergoes an early brief interval of rapid expansion. The photon gas cooled due to expansion. Now its temperature is about . By this time, the surface of "SAMA" is so smooth to reflect photons back inside the shell. So radiation from all observable parts of the Universe is contained within the shell, and the energy of the blackbody radiation remains the same, except for the work done to expand the Universe.
Galaxy clustering on scales up to hundred million light years, the evidence for huge sheets, and the increased mass-to-light ratio for larger scales all do strongly indicate that these Galaxies are gravitationally bound to huge spherical shells of CDM; ARADEAN. The extremely massive hot core contributes to the huge power observed on large scale. Galaxies that are far from "SAMA'", and streaming away from us at highly relativistic speeds are likely trapped by the steep gravitational potential of the core. The model puts the massive hot core at the center to provide the maximum possible separation between hot and cold dark matter, otherwise excessive heat transfer will result in burning and destruction of the whole Universe including "SAMA'" itself.
I am indebted to professors: Khalid AL-khateeb, and Mohammad Soliman, for their valuable suggestions and criticism.
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Figure 3: A galaxy at point b is further away from m compared to a galaxy at point a, and is moving faster towards the center of the universe; since it is closer to the massive core. For a galaxy moving radially along the line bc, a blue shift might be observed at m; when galaxy is moving along dotted line (if its velocity towards m exceeds the velocity of expansion of Sama'). When the galaxy reaches point b, a redshift is observed when moving along the solid line from point b to c. As far as the radial component of velocity is concerned, a redshift is observed at m from any galaxy lying inside the top spherical shell centered at o, and having radius R/2, where R is the radius of the spherical shell "SAMA'".